Erik Šoltés, Janka Táborecká-Petrovičová, Romana Šipoldová
In the era of big data and digital technologies, marketing and especially digital marketing are rapidly developing. This development is significantly supported by utilisation of various quantitative methods allowing for a lot of useful information from different marketing fields. Digital marketing brings access to mass market for a reasonable price and unlike advertisement in traditional media (TV commercials, print), it enables personalized marketing. Digital marketing applies digital channels, devices and platforms to develop or implement a marketing strategy. One subset of digital marketing is online marketing usually defined as internet marketing.
Expansion of internet marketing is considerable and evident by the increase of expenditures into internet advertisement. In the year 2018, 68% of Slovaks and 75% of Czechs had daily access to internet, whereas in 2012 it was 60% and 44%, respectively.
Patrick O. Eke, Kehinde A Adetiloye, Esther O Adegbite
The debate on development of the bond market as major channel of industrial finance is gaining traction in many African economies. The secondary arm of the market, aside from the liquidity window it provides for investors in the primary market, additionally creates information linkage by fostering capital formation for prospective investors and producers that require capital to meet their investment opportunities, assisting in the allocation and operational efficiency of the capital market. Except if the market remains thin, overtime, liquidity in the market becomes more visible in the economy’s financial architecture, as it ignites market dynamism in the financial services linkage with other sectors of the economy. Liquidity is a pre-requisite to deepening the bond market, conditioned on information availability to ease asset valuation. The rapidity and randomness of information is what actually distinguishes capital market functionality and efficiency (Wijst, 2013).
Silvo Dajčman, Alenka Kavkler, Peter Mikek, Dejan Romih
After the global financial crisis and the Great Recession, a large and growing body of literature has examined real business-financial cycle linkages. To this end, Claessens et al. (2012) examined a large database of business and financial stress periods, corroborating that financial crisis periods are often longer and deeper than economic recessions and tend to amplify and prolong the latter. Our research aims to contribute to an understanding of the financial stress-macroeconomy nexus by studying the spillovers of US (euro area) financial stress shocks and their macroeconomic effects (i.e. effects on industrial production, inflation and unemployment) into the euro area (USA). This paper asks whether these effects are contingent on the phase of the business cycle. Traditionally, domestic and international financial stress-business cycle linkages have been investigated within the linear modelling framework.
Alma Lucero Ortiz, José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez
In addition to economic factors, other cultural and political influences have been critical drivers of economic growth. Technology issues have begun to feature as a central component of the growth process (Helpman, 1998). For example, technological advances can contribute to humanity’s well-being by facilitating a dynamic change, thereby allowing humankind to perform more efficiently (OECD, 1998). The adoption of information technologies, communication infrastructure, and the Internet in multiple social and productive sectors offers tangible advantages to countries. This process has improved several aspects of societies, such as business, technology, education, and the global economy (Ejiaku, 2014). The importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as an asset to the economy’s growth has been highlighted (Schreyer, 2000). The way of doing business has been modified using ICTs through different processes and tools that allow companies to use Internet-based information technologies.
Wen Jun, Ihsan Jamil, Bushra Mughal, Junaid Waheed, Hadi Hussain
Human asset training and development increases the productivity and skills of workers (Saif et al., 2019). Globally, governments spend billions of dollars to promote the workforce, to enhance their country’s economy and innovation. Working women are the pillars of society and play a vital role in its development. The female workforce is the key to innovation, growth, and prosperity in modern societies. Globally, economists focus on the practical and theoretical side of how working women perform an active role within the workforce and how they positively contribute to growth and Innovation (Luci, 2009). Women first started participating in the workforce during the late 19th and early 20th century. Worldwide, owing to higher per capita economic growth, the demand for female participation in the labour force has been increasing and motivating the working women to participate in development and innovation activities.
Huchang Liao, Ruxue Ren, Jurgita Antucheviciene, Jonas Šaparauskas, Abdullah Al-Barakati
The constriction of global resources and the sustained growth of population bring resources pressure to society. At the same time, the problem of environmental pollution and ecological imbalance cannot be ignored. In 2008, the United Nations Environment Programme launched the “Green Economy” initiative to integrate the concept of green and sustainable development into economic development. In this context, resource conservation, environmental protection and sustainable development are the best choices in this era. The construction industry is the pillar industry of Chinese economy. It is important for the construction industry to implement sustainable development. Faced with the pressure of resources and higher environmental requirements, green supply chain is an important means to enhance the environmental friendliness of construction industry and realize the rapid development of enterprises (Beamon, 1999; Ansari & Kant, 2017).
Jan Čapek, Miloslav Hub
The ubiquitous Internet connectivity has led to the introduction of an ever-increasing list of diverse online services ranging from financial transactions to online gaming and the other e-commerce purposes. For example, with cloud computing on the rise, geographically distant employees of organizations are able to access and share sensitive organizational resources online. The mentioned trend has increased the amount of user authentication processes. The aim of authentication is to decide whether a subject in question is in fact the subject that he claims to be. As an example can be mentioned traditional authentication, when end users authenticate themselves on computers by using the pair of username and password. In the past, many sophisticated authentication methods were developed. Generally, they can by divided to the three basic types of authentication depending on what kind of identification feature is used: authentication by knowledge, authentication by ownership of something, and authentication by biometrics. Each of these ways has its advantages and disadvantages.
Ch. Mahmood Anwar
Nowadays when businesses are facing intense rivalries, it is worthwhile for business organizations to recruit and retain workforce by adopting successful strategies to gain or sustain competitive advantage. Literature indicates that many factors (e.g., economic, financial, legal, structural, technical, procedural, and social) play an important role in determining organizational success (Pourhanifeh & Mazdeh, 2016). Moreover, literature also highlights the importance of workforce which is considered as an essential element for organizations to outperform. Riaz et al. (2018) mentioned that currently organizations are putting more efforts to explore employees’ innovative behaviour in order to obtain and sustain edge over competitors. Farid et al. (2017) highlighted that majority of the studies investigating innovative behaviour of employees were conducted at organizational level. They realized the need to conduct studies exploring innovativeness of employees at individual level.
Gabriela Trnková, Zdeňka Žáková Kroupová
The evaluation of the competitiveness of different agriculture sectors has, traditionally, been based on the measurement of technical efficiency. We focus on the dairy sector because the EU dairy sector is one of the pivotal agricultural sectors in the EU. The dairy sector currently faces several challenges arising from growing EU and global demand, price volatility, fodder crisis as a result of climate change and the fact that dairy farms are highly specialized, which on the one hand may be an advantage, on the other hand a threat due to higher vulnerability to income shocks. Milk production is carried out on mixed farms or specialized farms. In 2012, the share of the sector covered by specialized farms in the FADN, on which this analysis is based, is more than 80% in the EU-15 (EU members until the 2004 enlargement) and around 50% in the other member states. There are big differences in coverage among EU countries: only 17% of milk production in Slovakia and 19% in the Czech Republic, but full production in Ireland and Finland.
Lucie Meixnerová, Michal Krajňák
The minimum wage institute was established at the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Its purpose was to ensure the protection of the workforce. The minimum wage ensures that the labour market wage cannot fall below the determined level, which takes the form in accordance with the economic and
political conditions of the country concerned (Dube et al., 2010). The determined level of the minimum wage results either from the tripartite act, which is made up of representatives of government, employers and trade unions or is enacted in relation to a percentage of the average wage level. Lopresti and Mumford (2016) mention that setting a minimum wage is a very complex problem, as its value is related to the price of labour that affects employers’ competitiveness. The minimum wage affects not only the part of the employer but also the employee, as employees want to receive fair remuneration for their work that will ensure them the required standard of living.