Václav Klepáč, David Hampel
The best defense against existential problems of a company appears to be good ﬁnancial health, based on a satisfactory ﬁnancial situation. If, however, considerably weakened, the company gets into ﬁnancial distress, which may turn into a ﬁnancial crisis and end up in bankruptcy. The primary means, by which we would be informed about the condition of the enterprise, are bookkeeping data of a company. From there, based on ﬁnancial analysis, we can identify scenarios leading to good management decisions and, consequently, to the ﬁnancial health of the company.
Danuše Nerudová, Veronika Solilová
There have been many attempts to coordinate the corporate taxation systems of EU Member States. First, in 1962, the European Commission suggested splitting the corporate tax rates and applying a different tax rate for retained and distributed proﬁts. Furthermore, eight years later, the Temple report suggested the implementation of a classical system of corporate taxation in the EU Member States.
Every economy aspires to enlarge the share of high-tech industries in its industrial structure, considering this share as one of the main determinants of country’s economic development. Hence, the induction of high and medium-high technology industries through R&D support, stimulation of innovation activities and higher quality may help economies to avoid getting trapped in the low-tech specialization during the long term.
Barbora Slintáková, Stanislav Klazar
Tax systems of developed countries contain provisions that give a preferred status to housing and homeownership. A signiﬁcant relief is provided especially by the combination of non-taxation of imputed rental income and mortgage interest payment deductibility. Real user costs of owner-occupied housing are reduced (see Poterba & Sinai, 2008) and thus a bias in favour of the homeownership is created when households are encouraged to buy rather than to rent their dwellings.
Jiří Louda, Ondřej Vojáček, Markéta Pechholdová, Miroslav Barták
The study of connections between unemployment and its impacts on human health and economy has been the object of research since the US economic crisis in the 1920s (Brenner, 1967; Brenner, 1969; Kasl et al., 1968; Kasl & Cobb, 1970; Cobb, 1976). Evidence shows that loss of employment negatively affects not only health of individuals who have lost a job but also that of their partners and family members and reduces the life expectancy (Eliason & Storrie, 2009).
Matus Kubak, Andrea Tkacova, Armenia Androniceanu, Manuela Tvaronavičienė, Eva Huculova
Financial literacy (FL) represents a basic and inevitable skill that is important for human existence in the 21st century. In recent years, there are evident activities in a support of ﬁ nancial education especially from the European Commission (EC) side. The EC issued “The Communication on Financial Education” report. This report explicitly states economic and social advantages of a higher level of FL as well as fundamental principles of ﬁnancial education control according to the chosen procedures (European Commission, 2007).
Pavla Staňková, Šárka Papadaki, Ján Dvorský
Economic theory suggests that consolidation of hospital ownership through the formation of multiple hospital ‘‘systems’’ should lead to improved hospital performance. The general view of system superiority follows from considerations of economies of scale, improved ﬁnancial and other administrative management, and better access to ﬁnancial capital. Still, there is little evidence demonstrating greater efﬁciency in system-afﬁliated hospitals. The majority of studies have found hospitals belonging to multiple hospital systems to be more cost than independent hospitals, raising questions regarding the social value of much of the recent growth of new inter- organizational relationships. (Carey, 2003)
Blanka Klímová, Petra Marešová
Decision-making process about the development of new products is fundamental for the growth and prosperity of any company, particularly in the fast changing medical device market (Ivlev et al., 2015). Companies must innovate to be successful but this invariably carries some risk and uncertainty. In recent years, the issue of evaluation of investment effectiveness into medical devices has been intensively solved, both at national and international level (Heintz et al., 2016) due to the growing market with medical devices (Craig et al., 2014).
Dirk Beyer, Jana Hinke
Conducting business involves a constant ﬂow of money and capital, whose renewal and expansion on the one hand and distribution and investment on the other need to be managed. Business entities are required to be able to sustainably appreciate capital invested, therefore, it is necessary to conduct analyses of the rate of return on capital invested as part of business management.
Despite voluminous literature on the entrepreneurial behavior, studies examining Czech speciﬁcs are very rare – speciﬁed below. Most of studies come from US and relatively few from Europe, namely Netherlands and Austria.