Dana Egerová, Marta Nosková
The issue of female representation in top management teams is a growing area of interest among practitioners, policymakers, and researchers around the world (Ahmadi, Nakaa, & Bouri, 2018). In particular, there has been an ongoing debate about whether gender diversity in top management teams relates to company performance, more specifically financial performance (Farag & Mallin, 2017; Hernandez-Nicolás et al., 2015). The existing body of literature suggests that top management team gender diversity has both positive and negative effects on company performance. Additionally, the results of empirical studies on this issue remain mixed (e.g., Ali & Konrad, 2017; Eger & Indruchová, 2014; Julizaerma & Sori, 2012). On the one hand, there is evidence that gender diversity in top management is associated with higher financial performance (e.g., Campbell & Mínguez-Vera, 2008; Perryman, Fernando, & Tripathy, 2016).
Justyna Łapińska, Jana Meluzínová, Jiří Uhman
Pharmaceuticals are chemical and biological substances produced by the pharmaceutical industry, used in therapies and prevention of various diseases. They cover an extremely wide range of products, ranging from simple medicinal preparations, to extremely advanced technological specifics. Similar to food, pharmaceutical products are believed to be one of the most important needs of human beings. They have a significant impact on their health, often support and extend their lives. Due to their specific properties and healthcare function of pharmaceuticals, they are contained in the category of basic products and their significance is appreciated not only by buyers (patients) but also by authorities in most countries. That is why in many countries special attention is paid to the development of production and trade in pharmaceutical products.
Yufen Chen, Huanhuan Jin, Chao Chen, Chonghui Zhang
Managers often have to face kinds of decision-making problems in which a suitable investment alternative has to be evaluated and selected (Zhou et al., 2019; Yan et al., 2017; Rostamzadeh et al., 2017). Such a choice maybe related, for instance, to the technology choose for product development or machine selection for a manufacturing process (Frank et al., 2013). This kind of investment alternatives can be considered a multiple attribute decisionmaking (MADM) problem as it involves a variety of attributes that should be taken into account from finite feasible schemes based on the assessment information provided by decision makers. Due to the uncertain objects and ambiguous human thinking, sometimes it is impossible for decision makers to give all the evaluation values of attributes by exact numbers. The definition of fuzzy set is firstly introduced by Zadeh (1965) to address the uncertainty and ambiguity, which has been widely used in various domains.
Henrikas Sivilevičius, Lijana Maskeliūnaitė
In recent years, the problems of diverse transport mode development policy, travel price, duration and quality have been solved by a wide range of international scientists and researchers (Kandt, Rode, Hoffman, Graff, & Smith, 2015; Seelhorst & Liu, 2015; Woo, Cheng, Li, Chiu, Ho, & Horowitz, 2015; Kirschstein & Meisel, 2015; Guo, Yu, Chen, & Zhang, 2011). The choice of a particular mode of transport as an alternative to another one is subjective and usually based on an individual passenger’s approach to the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of some particular means of transport (Sivilevičius & Maskeliūnaitė, 2018).A transport system is a system created for transporting large numbers of passengers at the low price of investment. Passengers can usually choose a means of transport based on the criteria, which seem to be important for them.
Renata Korsakienė, Vratislav Kozak, Svajonė Bekešienė, Rasa Smaliukienė
High-g rowth firms (HGFs) make a significant impact on the development of countries’ economies and micro, or firm level, factors are vital in understanding this phenomenon. Indeed, HGFs are unique engine of national
economies that contribute essentially to economic growth which is much sought after in internationally open economic environment. More specifically, HGFs internationalization is perceived as a source of productivity,
export and employment growth in the country. Economic policies of countries, as a macro level stimulus, aim to provide impetus for HGFs development, however understanding micro level factors of HGFs creation, development and internationalization are the basis for macro level decisions. Studying and modelling
of micro level factors not only provides an opportunity to understand the phenomenon of HGFs but also develops the basis for policy decisions especially in the field of business internationalization.
Pedro Reinares-Lara, Josefa D. Martín-Santana, Eva Reinares-Lara
The market research institutes that measure the impact of advertising campaigns aggregate their results according to different criteria in order to provide clients with a normative Framework or framework of reference. In addition to the volume of advertising investment, one of the most common criteria is the industry or product
category, due to its influence on effectiveness measures. The academic literature has likewise underscored the need to take into account a product category when assessing advertising effectiveness (Vakratsas & Ambler, 1999). The concepts of industry and product category have drawn attention from researchers because of their usefulness in defining business strategies. For example, the interest in dividing markets into subgroups based on industries and product categories is grounded in the possibility of conducting a more comprehensive and accurate analysis of the competition and competitive advantages.
Mladen Čudanov, Vesna Tornjanski, Ondrej Jaško
Today’s highly volatile business environment has initiated a wide variety of changes within organizations of all industries (Hurn, 2012). Change dynamics, in general, is likely to increase in organizational context due to: Digital and innovation disruption; Shifting social and demographic trends; Growing knowledge-based economy and knowledge workforce development; More sophisticated customer needs; and Global economic integration and liberalization. Regardless of its root-cause, it has been argued that change occurs in various shapes, forms and intensity (Jarrett, 2008). Accordingly, many authors recognize that key factor of an organization’s effectiveness lie in the ability to adapt to ever-present change, while successful change management became a pattern for organizational survival and long-term sustainability.
Rabeea Sadaf, Judit Oláh, József Popp, Domicián Máté
The traditional interpretation of corporate finance is characterized by ownership. Although, their rights are widely distributed among individual stockholders, but can be managed by few managers. Hence, conflict
of interest is arisen among managers and shareholders and this results in an agency problem (Fama, 1980; Fama & Jensen, 1983). A number of empirical studies also confirmed the ownership concentration of firms, especially those dominated by few large owners or block-holders (La Porta et al., 1999). The concentrated structure of ownership also contributes towards agency conflict between block-holders and minority shareholders. From another perspective, the block-holders can benefit minority shareholders by their role in monitoring managers and also can be hazardous if they strive to achieve their own private goals (Shleifer & Vishny, 1997).
Stephen J. Clark, Ludwig O. Dittrich, Stephen M. Law, Dana Stará, Miroslav Barták
An important health financing issue facing Canada and other OECD countries (OECD, 2017) are the health consequences of obesity. Statistics Canada (2014) reports that 51.6% of adult Canadians were overweight or obese in 2009 compared to 53.6% in 2013. The proportion of Canadians who are overweight differs by sex, with 59.2% of Canadian males overweight in 2009 compared to 62% in 2013 and 43.9% of females overweight in 2009 compared to 45.1% in 2013. These increases have led to calls for policies to control obesity (see Clark et al., 2014). These rates of obesity are based on the body mass index (BMI) which is the ratio of weight (in kilograms) to the square of height (in meters). Cranfield (2007) uses the Canadian Community Heath Survey (CCHS) to examine the determinants of the body mass index (BMI) of Canadians.
Viktor Prokop, Jan Stejskal, Oto Hudec
Firms are struggling to gain competitive advantage to resist the ever-increasing global market pressures. Many strategic management studies have identified several essential pillars of building firm’s strategy, often highlighting positive relationships between the use of human resources and the firm performance (Collins & Clark, 2003; Wright et al., 2005). Thus, human capital as the stock of productive knowledge and skills embodied in individuals is a crucial strategic production factor. Knowledge and human resource are intrinsically related
concepts since it is people who can learn, generate, utilise and disseminate knowledge in collaborative networks. Knowledge is a primary input in the innovation process, and the ability to use knowledge is crucial in achieving high innovation performance and the strategic competitive advantage (Bock, Opsahl et al., 2012).