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PROJECT PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION AS A PART OF STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES: A METHODOLOGY OF THE SELECTION OF PROJECTS WITH THE AIM TO BALANCE STRATEGY, RISK AND PERFORMANCE

Emil Vacík, Miroslav Špaček, Jiří Fotr, Lukáš Kracík

Project Portfolio Management (PPM) deals with the coordination and control of multiple projects that pursue the same strategic goals and compete for the same resources, whereby managers prioritize among projects to achieve strategic benefits. PPM deals with simultaneously managing multiple projects and includes defining values, specifying priorities, solving conflicts between projects as well as defining organizational structure and the rules of its functions (Spradlin & Kutoloski, 1999). To provide maximum value to the organization, the portfolio must contain a balance of project types and risk levels as well as limit the number of projects to ensure that all projects can be resourced effectively (Killen, Hunt, & Kleinschmidt, 2008). According to numerous studies, project portfolio management is currently applied in the practice of nearly all modern enterprises (Miguel, 2006).
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MEASURING FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION: A MODEL AND APPLICATION TO THE SLOVAK BANKING SECTOR

Martin Boďa, Emília Zimková

Several factors may be earmarked as vital to smooth and successful working of a developed economy; and one of these factors is the financial system, which provides valuable services to the economy and its stability is always deemed imperative to the stability of the entire economy (e.g. Beck et al., 2014, p. 1-2). This laudatory statement is by no manner diminished by the fact that there is – at it happens – a scattered mosaic of opposing opinions to what extent a sound financial system is actually important to economic growth (Levine, 1997; Thiel, 2001). The key function of the financial system in an economy is “to channel savings to investment” (Thiel, 2001, p. 7), or – putting it differently – to connect agents with surplus funds to those who are in deficit, which are merely two different ways to describe the essence of financial intermediation. The definition is suggestive that financial intermediation should be assessed by comparing how surplus funds are matched against deficit needs.
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USE OF TIME IN SINGLE-MEMBER HOUSEHOLDS IN SLOVAKIA

Miroslava Knapková, Alena Kaščáková

Households represent one of the economic subjects entering to the market mechanism. The microeconomic theory focuses on households mostly as units of consumption, savings, partly as production units. Households participate on the side of the supply as well as on the side of the demand (Samuelson & Nordhaus, 2013; Mankiw, 1999). Households´ specific status on the supply side arises from the fact that households offer their ability to work at the labour market. When considering households on the demand side, mostly demand for goods and services that satisfied households´ needs must be included.
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INTERNET USE BY THE OLDER ADULTS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Blanka Klímová, Petra Poulová, Ivana Šimonová, Pavel Pražák, Anna Cierniak-Emerych

The problem of the developed countries is the aging of the population. Developing countries, for the time being, do not experience it so urgently yet due to the lower average age of the population, but their standard of living is also beginning to improve. In 2000, the percentage of older individuals aged 65+ years reached 12.4%. In 2030, this number should rise to 19% and in 2050 to 22% (Transgenerational, 2009). In Europe this population group aged 65+ represent 18% of the 503 million Europeans, which should almost double by 2060 (Patterson, 2006). This trend of aging population causes additional problems such as increased costs on the treatment and care of those elderly people (Maresova et al., 2015a; 2015b). Therefore, there is ongoing effort to extend the active life of this group of people in order to allow them to stay economically and socially independent. And current technological devices and services can assist them in this process.
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SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA ASSESSMENT FOR LIFE-CYCLE PHASES OF PETROLEUM REFINERY PROJECTS BY MADM TECHNIQUE

Yaghob Gholipour, Hamidreza Hasheminasab, Mohammad Kharrazi, Justas Streimikis

There is convincing evidence to suggest that understanding the fundamental needs of human beings is essential if we are to develop strategies to transition society towards more sustainable forms of development (Hall, 2006). Besides, human needs satisfaction is likely to “make fewer demands on our environmental resources, but much greater demands on our moral resources” (Brown, 1982). As such, it is a moral obligation for governments, societies, industries, and individuals, to help fulfill human needs by enhancing health, safety, economy, and society, while preserving the environmental assets such as biodiversity and natural resources; i.e. to realize sustainable development.
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ECONOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF CUSTOMERS’ PERSONALITY BIASES AND COMMUNICATION PREFERENCES CORRELATION

Katarina Kostelić, Danijela Križman Pavlović

In everyday life, people tend to make various choices, which directly or indirectly bare consequences to a person’s economic welfare. One of those choices is the communication preference. Given that the communication is one of the essential pillars of the marketing science, the importance of the analysis of the communication and related topics is imperative. Given the digitalization of the modern world we encounter a situation of data overload while real, “face-to-face”, communication diminishes. At this point, it is necessary to gain as much as possible information from the data, especially if the communication is digital. That is one of the reasons for the necessity of quantification of the influencing factors on communication. Therefore, it is relevant to pursue the quantification of the traits and biases which influence people’s rationality and consequentially their choices.
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AN EVALUATION MODEL OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FOR ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS WITH NEW EXTENSION OF CODAS (CODAS-IVIF)

Jalil Heidary Dahooei, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Amir Salar Vanaki, Hamid Reza Firoozfar, Mehdi Keshavarz-Ghorabaee

Nowadays, organizations may deal with a variety of issues challenging the decision making such as overflow of data, lack of information, lack of knowledge and insufficiency of reports (Lin, Tsai, Shiang, Kuo, & Tsai, 2009). Over the years, management information systems including DSS, ES, EIS, and so on have been widely supported companies with their decisions; however, a key missing capability to manage decisions for emergencies, monitoring competition, collect data from different points of views, and carrying out constant analyses of numerous data and consider different variants of organization performance, is the major cause of failure to adequately meet the needs of enterprise decision-makers (Olszak & Ziemba, 2007). Given the widespread changes and the dynamics of today’s environment, organizations need to use new information systems that can analyse the various causal relationships both within and outside the organization. Hence they move towards using business intelligence (Gangadharan & Swami, 2004; Duan & Da Xu, 2012).
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INDEXING FINANCIAL REPORTING INFORMATION FOR HERITAGE MANAGEMENT

Nabiela Noaman, Hassan Ouda, Johan Christiaens

The way ‘Heritage Assets’ are preserved is a symbol of a country’s civilization (Shan, 2006). Heritage assets (HA) are of utmost significance to shaping nations’ identities. Their significance is derived from their historical, aesthetic, scientific and social values. They should be well preserved to continue offering social benefits for an indefinite period (Barton, 2005). Countries possessing rich legacies of HA should manage them properly to evade negligence and loss of such irreplaceable possessions. Thus, governments are responsible for safeguarding HA and ensuring their retention for future generations.
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ECONOMIC PROJECTION AND EVALUATION OF MINING VENTURE

Jozef Čech, Marian Šofranko

Traditional methods of economic evaluation by techniques of investment and financial analysis with regards to the specifics of business, engineering and project economics are well known, e.g. (Gillespie, 2013; Newnan et al., 2013; Mian, 2011). Their use in mining evaluation is well adopted. The groundwork in the given field was done and provided in (Gentry & O’Neil, 1984) with following (Runge, 1998). More sophisticated math approach is represented by application of option value paradigm added to classical investment analysis, taking into account managerial aspect of decision flexibility during the project’s life. One of the first application to mining appeared within (Xiaoli & Elbrond, 1996) and to take a more recent, e.g. within (Hall & Nicholls, 2008) and (Saluga, 2011).
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RESTRUCTURING PARCEL DELIVERY NETWORK BY CONSIDERING DYNAMIC CUSTOMER DEMAND

Hyun-Woong Jin

Parcel delivery service, or courier service, is defined as delivering small and light parcels, quickly and accurately relying on sophisticated networks and the reliable tracking of the shipments (Ducret, 2014). Due to the rapid expansion of e-commerce, parcel delivery service industry became one of the fastest growing industries in the world and characterized as follows. First, it is an asset intensive industry since it requires huge investment on facilities such as delivering vehicles and hub facilities. Because of huge investment and long payback period, small and medium sized companies are seldom found in the market. Second, the core competencies of company are the speed and the accuracy of delivery.
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