Dana Benčiková, Denisa Malá, Jaroslav Ďaďo
The contemporary business world is so highly globalized that it would be wrong to assume that an enterprise which wants to succeed in international competition, may exist and fully function without any international trade
or relations. Intercultural competences of the employees are thus becoming increasingly important. One may think that when dealing with the enterprise’s stakeholders, professional knowledge and technical skills are sufficient in order to maintain the corporate processes running smoothly. However, considering the fact that for different reasons, e.g. work migration, or work exchanges, the working environment is growing to be highly diverse and intercultural, the importance of being interculturally competent is clearly relevant at all hierarchy levels, and in relation to both external and internal stakeholders.
Ivan Soukal, Jan Draessler
Payment account (PA, in plural PAs), as the most common type of the sight deposit, represents a financial product with the highest market penetration in the European Union (EU). The Czech Republic is not an exception. Finclusion study (The World Bank, 2018) showed that PA account penetration is as high as 81% of all citizens over age 15 in the Czech Republic. EU survey declared the penetration higher by two percent points concerning the population over age 15 in the Czech Republic (TNS opinion & social, 2016). In spite of a minor
methodology difference, such as the inclusion of any financial institution or mobile-moneyservice provider account, it is evident that most of the population possess one or more PAs. EU survey (Eurostat, 2018a) confirmed that most of Czech Republic population aged 16 to 74 actively uses e-banking channel for electronic transactions with a bank for payment or for looking up account information. EU banking regulator acknowledged PA as the most widespread and therefore important retail financial product for EU consumers (European Banking Authority, 2016).
Rafał Tyszkiewicz, Agnieszka Pawlak-Wolanin, Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska, Soňa Jandová, Piotr Oleśniewicz, Helena Jáčová, Monika Tyszkiewicz
The relationship between a company and a supplier is a strategic resource for both parties. However, not every such relationship can be considered strategic. In order for a relationship to assume strategic importance, it must be special (or unique) in some terms and difficult to imitate. Otherwise, it will not contribute to making the company stand out against the competition. Such relationships may be formed in two areas. Firstly, they may
be intended to increase the company’s access to financial resources; secondly, they facilitate investment (Tyszkiewicz, 2017b). It is noteworthy that partnership is based on such elements as trust and communication. These factors produce a continuous and deepening effect to ensure long-term results satisfactory for both parties involved. It is also significant to define the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of the suppliers and the clients, as well as to fairly share risks, costs, and profits arising from implementation of new initiatives (Christopher, 2000).
Petr Hlaváček, Julius Janáček
In the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe after the completion of the privatization process, there was increased pressure to win foreign investment to support the ongoing economic transformation. Countries systematically dealt with the problém of a lack of foreign investments (Švejnar, 2002; Hardy et al., 2011). For this reason, in the Czech Republic and in other post-communist countries an incentive system was created for foreign investors (Ginevičius & Šimelytė, 2011). The aim was to increase the attractiveness of the economy for foreign investors in competition with other countries, which also created their own incentive systems. In the Czech legislation, a foreign investor is defined as a company that establishes or expands its representation as a foreign investor in the host economy, which includes acquiring at least 10% of the share of the assets and/or voting rights in a company.
Jalil Heidary Dahooie, Navid Mohammadi, Mehdi Mohammadi, Parisa Shahmohammadi, Zenonas Turskis, Jonas Šaparauskas
Intangible assets play a significant role in other areas, in particular, developing the stratégy and creating a patent portfolio for organizations (Wang, García, Guijarro, & Moya, 2011). In general, innovation can be considered as the engine for developing enterprise competitiveness. To this end, the research and development unit of organizations is focused on inventions and their legal protection (Lee, Park, & Jang, 2015). Today, a significant portion of the assets of organizations is intangible assets (Bishop, 2003). Intellectual property is typically defined as a set of products that are protected under the laws relating to patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets (Kumar, 1994). Studies show that three main advantages of patents, which add to the importance of their registration, are to encourage the creation of knowledge and innovation, to maintain knowledge in the organization, and to protect identity and characteristics of change (Kumar, 1994).
Huamin Li, Xuejing Zhang, Dalia Streimikiene, Zinaida Hipters
As the labor productivity increases, more and more people are spurring the need for leisure tourism. However, due to the limitations of time, budget and other factors, leisure tourism is becoming more and more localized in the region and increasingly fragmented in time. Transportation methods are increasingly inclined to travel by car. The so-called leisure tourism refers to the tourism that people rely on tourism resources, with tourism as the main purpose, with the conditions of tourism facilities, with specific cultural landscapes and service items as the content, leaving the settlements and staying in different places for a certain period of time, sightseeing, entertainment and sightseeing. Crouch (2000) described leisure tourism as that including encounters with place. Encounters with other people and material things, imagination and memory occur in places. The leisure experience brought by leisure tourism is not based on the novel pursuit of sightseeing, but also contributes to the physical restoration of tourists (Lehto, Kirillova, Li, & Wu, 2017).
Joanna Ejdys, Romualdas Ginevicius, Zoltan Rozsa, Katarina Janoskova
One of the factors determining the current and future social and economic advance is the level of society’s digitisation, which is applicable to each sphere of human life (Ejdys & Halicka, 2018; Polak-Sopinska & Wisniewski, 2009). This level is measured by the scale and scope of the phenomenon, i.e. subjective, geographical dynamics of change and the scale of effects caused (Chodakowska & Nazarko, 2017). Digitalisation processes gave rise to a new type of society referred to as the information society. E-government is one of the areas of ICT application in the information society. The term e-government, i.e. electronic public administration, refers to a systém (organisational and legal, institutional, and IT) which enables to deal with administrative matters by electronic means. According to the definition proposed by the European Commission, e-government is the use of ICT tools and systems to provide better public services to citizens and businesses (Digital Single Market: Glossary).
Klára Burišková, Vladimír Rogalewicz, Petr Ošťádal
Health care economists estimate that 40-50% of annual cost increases can be traced to new technologies or the intensified use of old ones (Callahan, 2008). However, any limitation of their application is massively criticized as unethical. Patients (supported by journalists) believe that new expensive technology will speed-up their treatment and miraculously enhance their quality of life, while physicians are fascinated by fanciful possibilities of state-of-the-art devices. Nevertheless, due to limited resources of health care, each particular utilization of a medical device should be put to the test of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (Markiewicz, van Til, & Ijzerman, 2014; Rosina et al., 2014). The typical approach used above all in drugs is to calculate cost-effectiveness when the technology is in routine use.
Laslo Seres, Pere Tumbas, Predrag Matkovic, Marton Sakal
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are enterprise-wide information systems that integrate and control the complete range of processes and functions, in order to provide a holistic view of the business from a single information and information technology (IT) architecture (Klaus, Rosemann, & Gable, 2000), enabling organizations to manage efficient and effective use of their resources by using a complete, integrated, packaged software solution and a common central database for the organization’s information-processing needs (Al-Fawaz, Eldabi, & Naseer, 2010). By adopting an ERP system, organizations are looking for a better use of their own resources in order to raise their own efficiency, which can be jeopardized by high costs associated with ERP implementation, staff training, as well as maintaining and aligning the system with the needs of the organization (Jáčová, Brabec, & Horák, 2013).
Motivation research has a long history of considering employee motives and needs, and it is still popular. To find the reason, it is not necessary to look for a long time. Numerous studies have shown that employees could be the most valuable asset that organizations have. Employees, with their knowledge, skills, abilities, and work attitudes, influence how efficiently resources and means are used. Kazdová (2012) says that the employee who is motivated speaks about the firm positively, sees his/her future in the firm, and makes an extra effort which leads to the improvement of organizational outputs. According to Swift, Balkin, and Matusik (2010), employee motivation influences knowledge sharing in the organization, among other things. If the employee is motivated, he/she is more willing to share knowledge (Hau, Kim, Lee, & Kim, 2013).