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FACTORS DETERMINING PROFITABILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SELECTED INDUSTRY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC – THE EMPIRICAL STUDY

Ľubica Lesáková, Andrea Ondrušová, Miroslava Vinczeová

Mechanical engineering belongs to the key industries in Slovakia. In terms of achieved sales and the rate of employment, it ranks among the largest manufacturing industries. The industry currently employs 12 per cent of the population and accounts for up to 42 per cent of total output of the Slovak Republic. Many of the enterprises operating in this industry are small or mediumsized. This industry apparently plays an essential role in the global economy, it is a source of entrepreneurship, innovations and new jobs. These are some of the reasons for which SMEs´ profitability and ways of its improvement should draw particular attention. It is therefore obvious that the issues of the financial analysis in SMEs are receiving constant attention. Since SMEs are the backbone of the Slovak economy and mechanical engineering is one of its key industries, our intention in this article is to focus attention on profitability and factors influencing it in SMEs active in the mechanical engineering industry.
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AN EXPANDED CONCEPTUALIZATION OF “SMART” CITIES: ADDING VALUE WITH FUZZY COGNITIVE MAPS

Bárbara P. Miguel, Fernando A. F. Ferreira, Audrius Banaitis, Nerija Banaitienė, Ieva Meidutė-Kavaliauskienė, Pedro F. Falcão

The world’s population continues to increase rapidly, and, within the next 30 years, more than half of all people will choose to live in large urban centers (Faria et al., 2018). This has led to a number of problems, such as congested people and transportation traffic and increased pollution that produces climate change. The concept of “smart” cities has emerged as a way to deal with these issues, in which these cities are defined as an ecosystem that seeks to improve citizens’ quality of life through a combination of technology, sustainability, and physical infrastructures (Estrada et al., 2018). Smart cities have to use new technologies ranging from the Internet of Things (IoT), which facilitates connections between everything, to home automation (i.e., the ease with which citizens can manage daily routines through their homes).
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SURVIVAL AND LONGEVITY OF FAMILY BUSINESSES: A CASE OF EASTERN BUSINESS CULTURE

Ravindra Hewa Kuruppuge, Ales Gregar

Family businesses all over the world are suffering from long-term survival problems (Miller et al., 2004; Salvato & Leif, 2008) despite financially outperforming in the short run (Dyer, 2006; Villalonga & Amit, 2006). Meanwhile, general business literature agrees that if a business outperforms in accumulating more resources in the short run, it has a greater propensity to sustain in the long run (Efrat & Shoham, 2012). In this case, despite the diverse ideologies, the short term in this paper is termed to be less than three years. The simple question arising from these two research findings is why family businesses are not as sustainable in the long run if they can outperform in the short run?
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MEDIATING EFFECT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP AND PERFORMANCE

Elif Baykal, Cemal Zehir

The challenging work environment of the 21st century has resulted in a great deal of global, societal and organizational change (Fry, 2003). We are experiencing a global crisis of confidence that has spread among many people and organizations (Parameshwar, 2005). Corporate fraud (Schroth & Elliot, 2002), negativity stemming from the downsizing of companies, anxieties resulting from emerging technologies (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003), and the financial crisis have affected the way employers see their organizations and leaders. Congruent with that reality, organizations have started to give more importance to positivity and developing strong characteristics of employees, rather than focusing on negativity and weaknesses (Avey, Luthans, & Jensen, 2009). Similarly, academics and organizational behaviour experts started to focus on positivity and positive sides of organizational life. This change in mentality brought about the need for a more holistic leadership style that can integrate minds and souls of people: namely, spiritual leadership.
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RESTRUCTURING PARCEL DELIVERY NETWORK BY CONSIDERING DYNAMIC CUSTOMER DEMAND

Hyun-Woong Jin

Parcel delivery service, or courier service, is defined as delivering small and light parcels, quickly and accurately relying on sophisticated networks and the reliable tracking of the shipments (Ducret, 2014). Due to the rapid expansion of e-commerce, parcel delivery service industry became one of the fastest growing industries in the world and characterized as follows. First, it is an asset intensive industry since it requires huge investment on facilities such as delivering vehicles and hub facilities. Because of huge investment and long payback period, small and medium sized companies are seldom found in the market. Second, the core competencies of company are the speed and the accuracy of delivery.
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ECONOMIC METHODS USED IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

Blanka Klímová, Petra Marešová

Decision-making process about the development of new products is fundamental for the growth and prosperity of any company, particularly in the fast changing medical device market (Ivlev et al., 2015). Companies must innovate to be successful but this invariably carries some risk and uncertainty. In recent years, the issue of evaluation of investment effectiveness into medical devices has been intensively solved, both at national and international level (Heintz et al., 2016) due to the growing market with medical devices (Craig et al., 2014).
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EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE SYNERGY COMPONENTS

Ilona Skačkauskienė, Denisa Hrušecká, Aušra Katinienė, Martin Čepel

The 21st century is characterised by social transformations, as economic development relies on knowledge rather than labour force, natural resources or capital as before (Jankauskienė et al., 2012). Drucker (1980) and Strassmann (1989) were among the first ones to talk about the importance of information and knowledge expressed in words – it is one of the most important and special resources which, when in use, can bring significant benefits.
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BUSINESS SYSTEM AS AN EQUILIBRIUM OF INTENTION AND CAUSALITY

Václav Řepa

More than 20 years after the idea of business process-driven management was born there still exist essential insufficiencies in the understanding of how business processes should be modeled in order to respect this idea. These insufficiencies are manifesting themselves even in the existing modeling standards. As the modeling of business process is a necessary first step in the process of implementing the process-driven management idea, this situation seems to be a main barrier of the needed putting this idea into the real life.
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LINKAGES BETWEEN PERSONALITY AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING BEHAVIOR IN WORKPLACE: MEDIATING ROLE OF AFFECTIVE STATES

Ch. Mahmood Anwar

Knowledge is considered as a critical strategic resource for organizations in the contemporary knowledge-intensive economy. According to the resource based view of firms, one among other sources of firm’s competitive advantage is knowledge. Research shows that knowledge sharing is a key enabler of knowledge management (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Alavi & Leidner, 2001). Many organizations assert knowledge sharing vital to exploit core competencies and to achieve sustained competitive advantage.
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DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE BENEFITS DERIVED FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EN 9100 STANDARDS

Carlos del Castillo-Peces, Carmelo Mercado-Idoeta, Camilo Prado-Román

The aerospace sector is one of the most important in global economy. The invoicing of the first 100 aerospace companies worldwide was in 2011 665,970 million dollars, which represents 5% of the world’s gross domestic product (PwC, 2012). In Spain, this sector is equally important, since according to the data of the year 2011 (DBK, 2012), it represents the fifth industry of the sector in the European Union, both due to the employment level (40,200 employees) and the annual invoicing (6,715 million euros, which represent approximately 6% of Europe’s total invoicing). Aerospace sector is clearly exports-oriented, since nearly 75% of its total invoiced in the year arises from exporting.
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