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UNEMPLOYMENT EFFECTS OF GREENFIELD AND BROWNFIELD INVESTMENTS IN POST-TRANSITION EUROPEAN UNION MEMBERS

Yilmaz Bayar, Rita Remeikienė, Jan Žufan, Miloslav Novotný

The foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows have exhibited substantial increases with contri bution of relaxation of the impediments over the international flows of goods, services and capital mainly resulting from the accelerating liberalization and globalization as of 1980s. Consequently, international FDI inflows reached USD 3.111 trillion in 2007, but then contracted due to economic crises and the increasing protectionism concerns in the recent years and became USD 1.95 trillion in 2017 (World Bank, 2019a). The rapidly expanding FDI flows made the economic effects of FDI one of the muchdiscussed and studied topics in the international economics. On the one hand, the scholars have focused on the effect of FDI inflows on the economic growth, unemployment, total taxes, technological development, environmental degradation (see, e.g., Lasbrey et al., 2018).
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FACTORS AFFECTING THE COST OF SERVICE TRADE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

Ji Chen, Qiang Fang, Si Liu, Tomas Balezentis, Chonghui Zhang

Trade promotes economic (Drelich-Skulska & Domiter, 2018; Skulski, 2018; Bobowski, 2018), social (Radukic et al., 2019) and environmental (Munir & Ameer, 2018; Tao et al., 2017) interactions. The conceptual category of service trade has two different interpretations, broad and narrow. In a narrow sense, trade in services refers to activities in which a country meets the specific needs of other countries in a way that provides direct services and is paid in the course of the transaction. In the broad service trade, it includes both tangible activities and various intangible activities that complete the transaction without direct contact between the service provider and the user. Unless otherwise stated, trade in services usually refers to concepts in a broad perspective.
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COLLABORATION FOR INNOVATION IN SMALL CEE COUNTRIES

Viktor Prokop, Jan Stejskal, Oto Hudec

Firms are struggling to gain competitive advantage to resist the ever-increasing global market pressures. Many strategic management studies have identified several essential pillars of building firm’s strategy, often highlighting positive relationships between the use of human resources and the firm performance (Collins & Clark, 2003; Wright et al., 2005). Thus, human capital as the stock of productive knowledge and skills embodied in individuals is a crucial strategic production factor. Knowledge and human resource are intrinsically related concepts since it is people who can learn, generate, utilise and disseminate knowledge in collaborative networks. Knowledge is a primary input in the innovation process, and the ability to use knowledge is crucial in achieving high innovation performance and the strategic competitive advantage (Bock, Opsahl et al., 2012).
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DEFLATION AND OUTPUT ACROSS SECTORS: RESULTS FOR THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Pavel Ryska, Petr Sklenář

The study of deflation seems to be gaining ever more importance. Central banks in most advanced economies, including the European Central Bank and the Czech National Bank, have observed CPI inflation running below their targets or even in outright deflationary territory. These central banks argue that deflation should be avoided at all costs and employ extraordinary policies such as quantitative easing, foreign exchange interventions or negative nominal interest rates to fight against it. As these policies have not always led to higher economic growth and higher inflation, there have been calls for even more extraordinary measures.
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IMPORTANCE OF R&D EXPENDITURE FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SELECTED CEE COUNTRIES

Irena Szarowská

Research and development (R&D) is of fundamental importance in the creation of knowledge, products and technologies (Solow, 1956; Jones, 1995; Köhler et al., 2012; OECD, 2012; Szarowská, 2016; 2017). Generally, governments have three main instruments for financing R&D (own R&D, direct funding and indirect funding), each of which has advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of economic theory (David et al., 2000). The financial crisis prompted many governments to introduce tough fiscal consolidation measures and to prioritize other issues over R&D. However, Hud and Hussinger (2015) note that to prevent firms from reducing their R&D expenses and to maintain national R&D capacities, policymakers in many countries reacted immediately to the crisis and increased the public R&D budget.
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DETERMINANTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION’S TRADE – EVIDENCE FROM A PANEL ESTIMATION OF THE GRAVITY MODEL

Michał Bernard Pietrzak, Justyna Łapińska

In the world’s economy the last two decades have been a period of development of regional integration groups. A number of new groups came into being and the already existing ones followed the path of deepening the integration process.
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