MEASURING FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION: A MODEL AND APPLICATION TO THE SLOVAK BANKING SECTOR
Several factors may be earmarked as vital to smooth and successful working of a developed economy; and one of these factors is the financial system, which provides valuable services to the economy and its stability is always deemed imperative to the stability of the entire economy (e.g. Beck et al., 2014, p. 1-2). This laudatory statement is by no manner diminished by the fact that there is – at it happens – a scattered mosaic of opposing opinions to what extent a sound financial system is actually important to economic growth (Levine, 1997; Thiel, 2001). The key function of the financial system in an economy is “to channel savings to investment” (Thiel, 2001, p. 7), or – putting it differently – to connect agents with surplus funds to those who are in deficit, which are merely two different ways to describe the essence of financial intermediation. The definition is suggestive that financial intermediation should be assessed by comparing how surplus funds are matched against deficit needs.
Jméno a příjmení autora:
Martin Boďa, Emília Zimková
Financial intermediation, loan-to-deposit ratio, data envelopment analysis, Slovak commercial banks
DOI (& full text):
The paper proposes a model for measuring the attainment in financial intermediation that answers to situations when functions of financial intermediaries from a macroeconomic viewpoint may be…více
The paper proposes a model for measuring the attainment in financial intermediation that answers to situations when functions of financial intermediaries from a macroeconomic viewpoint may be primarily reduced to taking deposits and providing loans (which is characteristic of financial sectors of Post-Communist economies or economies with underdeveloped financial markets). The model builds on the methodology of Data Envelopment Analysis [DEA] since it estimates the production possibility set in a traditional manner as a conical or convex hull of observed production activities. Unlike DEA, the model seeks simultaneously to deflate only deposits and inflate loans to a greatest extent possible so that the production activity of a financial intermediary (typically a bank) remains feasible and stays in the estimated production possibility set. The model translates the identified slacks in deposits and loans into a metric that measures by which factor it is feasible to increase multiplicatively the actually observed loan-to-deposit ratio of a financial intermediary. The metric is computable for individual banks on a yearly basis, but is equally aggregable for a bank over the entire period. In contrast to traditional usage of DEA for efficiency measurement, the proposed model is associated more with the notion of productivity in financial intermediation rather than with the concept of efficiency. The model is presented and demonstrated in a case study of Slovak commercial banks for the period from 2008 to 2016. It is found that only smaller organizational units (smaller banks and branch offices of foreign banks) were in the past few years capable of financial intermediation at the best utilization of their resources, which is an observation relevant from a regulatory point of view.