Wojciech Grabowski, Karol Korczak
Due to the low level of quality of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) data set, studies devoted to matching the LFS data with data from alternative sources are frequent. In this paper, we propose a novel method of complementing data gaps on wages in the Labour Force Survey data set. The method is based on estimataing the parameters of the multilevel model explaining wages on the basis of the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) data set. In such a way, we identify the impact of individual characteristics and enterprise-level features on wages. We also find evidence of random differences between the wages of workers from different professional groups. The relative importance of consecutive groups of variables is evaluated on the basis of the estimates of the parameters of the full model and reduced models. The results of the estimation of the parameters are in line with expectations. The estimates of parameters and predictions of random effects are used in order to calculate the theoretical wages of individuals who do not report wages in the Labour Force Survey. When the predicted wages are compared with the observed ones, some discrepancies are observed. Rationales for these discrepancies are provided. Therefore, the use of a correction factor is proposed. Correction factors are provided for different features of workers and different features of enterprises. The use of the microeconometric multilevel model, as well as the correction factor, leads to reasonable wage estimates of workers not reporting them in the Labour Force Survey. The proposed method may be used in order to complement data gaps on wages for other EU countries.
Irena Benešová, Luboš Smutka, Jana Hinke, Adriana Laputková
The paper is an analysis of foreign trade of the post-Soviet countries conducted for years 2000 and 2015. The aims of the research were thus twofold: to examine the bilateral trade scheme for the selected countries and to attempt to explore relations between competitiveness and thus the position of the agricultural commodity aggregates. The UN COMTRADE database was used. In the monitored countries, there is continuous growth of the commodity aggregate 0 – Food and live animals, which is strongly influenced by the commodity sub-aggregates 02 – Dairy products and bird eggs, S3-04 – Cereals and cereal preparations. The first phase entailed calculations of individual indicators of mutual trade (RCA, LFI, GLI and coverage of import). Subsequently, the indicators were used as input variables for further analyses. Using RCA and LFI indexes, the commodity aggregates were classified into 4 quadrants according to their position within the comparative advantage and competitiveness. Using a cluster analysis (based on Euclidian distance and Ward’s method), individual commodity aggregates for the monitored countries were divided into groups based on the values of GLI, LFI and coverage of import. The groups were subsequently characterized for individual countries. Based on the conducted analyses, it can be stated that hypothesis 0 about the non-existence of significant changes within the group structure does not reflect the reality. Between 2000 and 2015, substantial changes occurred in terms of dividing the commodity aggregates into groups based on their common characteristics with regard to foreign trade. In addition, the diversity within foreign trade decreased between 2000 and 2015, and more commodity aggregates attain values around or below the average of a given aggregate. When assessing the intraindustry trade, it can be stated that some commodity aggregates can be regarded as important only with regard to Azerbaijan, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. In these countries, this phenomenon is most frequently evident in the commodity aggregates Beverages or Vegetables and fruit.
Daniel Puciato, Michał Rozpara, Marek Bugdol, Piotr Oleśniewicz, Helena Jáčová
Unemployment has a number of negative, economic, social and psychological effects on unemployed people and their families. Lowered household income leads to a constrained fulfilment of individual and collective needs, which has a significant impact on the quality of life and perceived health condition of the unemployed. The aim of this study is the identification of relationships between the quality of life and socio-economic status of unemployed persons. The study was carried out among 403 registered unemployed persons (246 women, 157 men) from Wrocław, Poland. The main method used in the study was the diagnostic questionnaire survey. Respondents’ quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, and their socio-economic status with author’s own S-ESQ questionnaire. Arithmetic means and standard deviation were calculated. Correlations between respondents’ quality of life and socio-economic status were checked with the Kruskal-Wallis oneway analysis of variance and Dunn’s post-hoc tests. The ex-ante level of statistical signifikance was set at α < 0.05. The mean health-related quality of life score of the unemployed respondents under study was higher than the mean perceived health condition score. As for the four quality of life domains, the respondents reported the highest scores in the social domain and psychological domain, followed by the physical and environmental domains. The analysis of mean scores of overall quality of life of the unemployed revealed statistically significant differences between groups of jobless Wrocław residents with regard to such factors as age, number of household members, and per capita income. Respondents’ age, education, marital status, persons per household, per capital income, and having savings were also significant differentiating factors of perceived health condition. The results of the study can be significant for public health policies in Poland and other countries at a similar level of economic development.
Rita Remeikienė, Jan Žufan, Ligita Gasparėnienė, Romualdas Ginevičius
The main aim of this article is to research the relationship between youth unemployment and self-employment in the EU and categorise particular EU countries as the countries with youth self-employment driven by push factors or pull factors. It has been revealed that statistically significant relationships between unemployment and self-employment among young people from the 28 EU countries, in only 7 countries have been identified. Of these, Greece, Italy and Cyprus, the unemployment rate among young people would decrease if national governments were to reduce unemployment through self-employment support measures. In other countries such as Germany, Sweden, the Czech Republic and Malta, it would be inappropriate to reduce unemployment through support for self-employment. In other EU countries, fighting youth unemployment requires addressing other labor market issues, such as the reluctance of businesses to employ unqualified or low-skilled young people, reducing the chances of reducing the tax burden when hiring young people, making flexible use of education opportunities with employment. The fact was confirmed that is inappropriate for all countries (in this case EU countries) to apply universal strategies to combat unemployment, because by means of theories and pilot studies on the establishment of statistically significant relationships, it is possible to avoid mistakes by directing support to the needs of target groups.
Jaka Sriyana, Akhsyim Afandi
International trade has played the role of engine of growth in many countries around the world. Export-import activities may affect the economy through some channels. First, it makes easier to access many commodities and services that lead to higher levels of income per capita and better living standards (Butkiewicz & Yanikkaya, 2011). Second, international trade among countries might also generate capital formation as an important step to the production process in the economy. The effect of international trade on income and economic growth has been intensively discussed in some papers (Altaee & Al-Jafari, 2014; Bajwa & Siddiqi, 2011; Das & Paul, 2011; Hassen, Anis, Taha, & Yosra, 2013; Hye, Wizarat, & Lau, 2016; Malefane, 2018). The vector error correction model (VECM. Over 100 developed and developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America experienced the positive impact of international trade on the increase of their income per capita (Butkiewicz & Yanikkaya, 2011). Therefore, eliminating trade barriers as an implementation of liberalization agreements is likely to boost the volume of international trade and promote economic growth rates.