Aktuální články z ekonomie


AN EXPANDED CONCEPTUALIZATION OF “SMART” CITIES: ADDING VALUE WITH FUZZY COGNITIVE MAPS

Bárbara P. Miguel, Fernando A. F. Ferreira, Audrius Banaitis, Nerija Banaitienė, Ieva Meidutė-Kavaliauskienė, Pedro F. Falcão

The world’s population continues to increase rapidly, and, within the next 30 years, more than half of all people will choose to live in large urban centers (Faria et al., 2018). This has led to a number of problems, such as congested people and transportation traffic and increased pollution that produces climate change. The concept of “smart” cities has emerged as a way to deal with these issues, in which these cities are defined as an ecosystem that seeks to improve citizens’ quality of life through a combination of technology, sustainability, and physical infrastructures (Estrada et al., 2018). Smart cities have to use new technologies ranging from the Internet of Things (IoT), which facilitates connections between everything, to home automation (i.e., the ease with which citizens can manage daily routines through their homes).
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ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF MACROECONOMIC IMBALANCES IN THE EU – DESIGN AND VERIFICATION

Stanislav Kološta, Pavol Kráľ, Filip Flaška

Years 2008 and 2009 were particularly affected by the outbreak of the global economic recession which in addition to economic instability was also affected by political instability. Economies of most countries in the world felt the impact of the financial crisis, not excluding the EU countries. Since the start of the crisis, there has been a substantial reduction in the EU’s growth potential. In the EU, this was reflected at the macro-level by 4.74% GDP reduction in 2009 (Campos-Soria, Inchausti-Sintes & Eugenio-Martin, 2014). The high levels of external liabilities and private and public debt in many countries in the EU still constitute substantial vulnerabilities for growth, jobs and financial stability. The development of various indicators at micro and macro levels in times of last crisis in various countries was investigated by several authors (Campos-Soria, Inchausti-Sintes, & Eugenio-Martin, 2015; Gugler, Weichselbaumer, & Zulehner, 2015; Zhao, Jiang, & Li, 2014; Tatulescu & Patruti, 2014; Mazurek & Mielcová, 2017; Klepáč & Hampel, 2018).
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A NONLINEAR DYNAMIC MODEL FOR INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND ON THE SPANISH MEDITERRANEAN COASTS

Isabel Albaladejo, Maribel González-Martínez

The Mediterranean is one of the main destinations for international tourism in Spain. According to the Spanish Statistics Institute (INE, 2016), more than half of international tourists staying at hotels chose the Mediterranean coastal provinces as a destination in 2015. Spain has about 3,500 km of Mediterranean coastline (INE, 2016). As shown in Fig. 1, these kilometers are distributed between the peninsular coast (2,058 km) and the archipelago of the Balearic Islands (1,428 Km). Tourism is an important economic sector on the Spanish Mediterranean coasts and it has become one of the most important sources of employment. For example, in Balearic Islands the tourism sector contributed 44.8% to the gross domestic product (GDP) and created 150,346 jobs (32.0% of total), in 2014.
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THE ROLE OF COUNTRY GOVERNANCE ON VALUE-ADDED TAX AND INEQUALITY

Sok-Gee Chan, Zulkufl y Ramly

Rising income inequality is a growing concern for governments due to its adverse effect on the poverty level, income distribution, social and institutional stability, which in turn impede the economic growth and may lead to political instability. Taxation has long been regarded as the key instrument in a fiscal policy to reduce income inequality via the redistribution of tax revenues to finance public goods and to correct for market-income inequality (Atkinson, 1991). Although prior studies have extensively investigated the effect of taxation on income inequality (Martinez-Vazquez et al., 2012), the findings are inconclusive especially in developing countries (Bird & Zolt, 2014).
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DEFLATION AND OUTPUT ACROSS SECTORS: RESULTS FOR THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Pavel Ryska, Petr Sklenář

The study of deflation seems to be gaining ever more importance. Central banks in most advanced economies, including the European Central Bank and the Czech National Bank, have observed CPI inflation running below their targets or even in outright deflationary territory. These central banks argue that deflation should be avoided at all costs and employ extraordinary policies such as quantitative easing, foreign exchange interventions or negative nominal interest rates to fight against it. As these policies have not always led to higher economic growth and higher inflation, there have been calls for even more extraordinary measures.
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