Aktuální články z ekonomie


EVALUATION OF THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES ON BASIS OF MULTIPLE INDICATORS CHANGED TO MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES

Changxing Li

Innovation has received more and more attention in the European Union since adoption of the Lisbon Strategy in 2000. In 2010 the European Commission 2010; European Council adopted a new strategy, Europe 2020, which stressed again the importance of innovations. Therefore it is important to evaluate the current level of the European Union Member States’ technological and economic development as well as its innovations impact on it. Innovation impact on economic development was analyzed by correlating various composite indices with GDP per capita indicator (Fagerberg & Srholec, 2008). The author proposes a conceptual model for economic development evaluation according to a world-system approach. The level of economic development can thus be identified by a system of indicators rather than single one (e.g. GDP per capita).
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ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ON THE EU ECONOMIC GROWTH

Rita Remeikiene, Zoltan Rozsa, Ligita Gaspareniene, Jan Pěnčík

According to Shah (2015), economic growth is a primary and crucial aim of national and regional economies. International trade, based on exploitation of the benefits of comparative advantage, is treated as one of the key Determinants of a sustainable economic growth. Being a structural part of the overal international trade, the international trade in agricultural products is an important engine of economic progress. Despite the abundance of the scientific studies proving the positive links between international trade and national and/or regional economic growth (Sun & Heshmati, 2010; Adhikary, 2010; Busse & Koniger, 2012; Fetahi-Vehapia & Sadikub, 2015; Vojtovic, 2016; Kljucnikov & Popesko, 2017; Weng et al., 2017, Simionescu et al., 2017 etc.), the international trade in agricultural products thus far has not earned the sufficient scientific attention.
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PERCEIVED CORRUPTION IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: EXPLORING THE UNDERLYING CAUSES

Marija Džunić, Nataša Golubović

Business environment is An important determinant of national competitiveness and sustainable long-term economic growth. Business environment quality determines the risk as well as returns from investment and therefore affects investment decisions. The business environment is largely, if not totally, beyond the control of the firms and their management. It results from existing political, legal and regulatory framework; macroeconomic policies; institutional infrastructure; social and cultural context within which transactions take place, the quality of physical and social infrastructure and many other factors. Empirical research has shown that corruption represents a serious obstacle to entrepreneurship and business (Kaufmann & Wei, 2000; Meon & Sekkat, 2005). Hellman et al. (2000) consider corruption, in addition to governance quality and state capture, a factor that significantly shapes business environment in transition countries.
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THE IMPACT OF SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES ON EXPORT BEHAVIOUR. EVIDENCE FROM POLISH FIRM-LEVEL DATA

Jarosław Michał Nazarczuk, Stanisław Umiński

The establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZ), and other types of privileged areas, is a common policy approach adopted by countries in order to attract domestic and foreign capital, increase exports or employment, increase trade openness or facilitate minor economic transitions within the country. By setting a preferential business climate, with lower taxes and tariffs made available in a restricted territory, governments promote investment inflow and encourage flourishing businesses to grow and cluster within zones, thus generating positive spill-over effects to the neighbouring areas.
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AT THE THRESHOLD OF THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: WHO GETS WHO LOSES

Ivana Kraftová, Iveta Doudová, Radim Miláček

In July 2014, the German agency GTAI (Germany Trade & Invest) released a comprehensive document named Industry 4.0 with a subtitle, Smart Manufacturing for the Future, identifying Germany as a potential global leader in digital economy development based on the definition of Industry 4.0. (MacDougall, 2014) When the elements of electronics and information technology in industrial processes were used in the late 1960s, the imaginary door opened to the start of the industrial revolution, the fourth in row.
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