Since the late 1980s, the Czech Republic has undergone the transformation process from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. The modernization of the country’s ﬁnancial sector is a fundamental condition for economic growth. The beginning of the transformation was associated with a rapid increase in credit activity. There was a decrease in the growth rate in the second half of the 1990s, followed by a decrease in the volume of lending. The volume of lending has increased again and the number of ‘bad’ credits has increased also since 2000.
Viera Pacáková, Lucie Kopecká
Quality health care system is a priority for citizens of each country and a precondition for economic prosperity. The public health systems in many counties bear the huge burden of treatment of serious diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Cancer, heart disease, diabetes, respiratory, mental and other chronic diseases represent great suffering to citizens and represent a huge cost to society and the economy. It is estimated that they will cost the global economy around €22.5 trillion between 2012 and 2030 (EU, 2013).
Pavol Minárik, Marek Vokoun, František Stellner
The period of economic recession and crisis usually intensiﬁes the discussion of policies that aim to increase economic performance. Among these we often ﬁnd suggestions to increase support of research and development, entrepreneurship and innovations. Economic crises create certain pressures to search for adequate policies in this respect; at the same time, crises seem to be the appropriate periods for implementing new policies. However, the research of the relation between business cycles and innovative activities is still rather marginal.
Romualdas Ginevicius, Dainora Gedvilaite, Andrius Stasiukynas
Today, when we talk about development, irrespective of the level of the analysed subject – a state, a sphere of economic activity, a region or a company – ﬁrst of all we think about sustainable development. The following concept of sustainable development has been formed in the global environmental and in economic development forums, and has become the classic deﬁnition: it is development that meets the current needs of a society without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This concept is based on three components – environmental, economic and social development.
Danuše Nerudová, Veronika Solilová
There have been many attempts to coordinate the corporate taxation systems of EU Member States. First, in 1962, the European Commission suggested splitting the corporate tax rates and applying a different tax rate for retained and distributed proﬁts. Furthermore, eight years later, the Temple report suggested the implementation of a classical system of corporate taxation in the EU Member States.