A concern over the raising resources consumed by health care costs has become widespread in many countries in recent years (Popesko, Papadaki, & Novak, 2015). Health spending in Poland was 6.4% of GDP in 2013, well below the OECD average of 8.9%. In 2013, per capita health spending in Poland has increased by a strong 3.8% in real terms, far above the average growth (1.0%) across OECD countries (OECD Health Statistics 2015).
Ľubica Lesáková, Katarína Dubcová, Petra Gundová
One of the management tools that is gaining popularity in business practice is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The BSC was developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton in 1992 as an alternative to traditional performance measurement approaches that focus solely on ﬁnancial indicators and are based purely on a business´s past performance. During the years the Balanced Scorecard has evolved from its early use as a simple performance measurement framework to a full strategic planning and management system.
Ning Zhu, Jelena Stjepcevic, Tomas Baležentis, Zhiqian Yu, Bing Wang
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) drew much attention globally as economic growth was followed by such social problems as an increasing gap between the rich and the poor, cultural conﬂicts, and environmental degradation. Having acknowledged the importance of the latter challenges, the United Nations ofﬁcially launched the “Global Compact” project in 2000, thereby calling the enterprises for commitments towards social responsibility in the areas of human rights, labor standards, and environmental protection, among other issues. As an important actor in the global economic development, the banking sector also became aware of huge social costs associated with unsustainable economic growth, and recognized its responsibilities in such areas as an active reduction of social inequality and environmental degradation. Thus it is important to analyze the impact of commitments towards CSR upon banking performance.
Restructuring processes are continuous in market economies. Technological progress, diffusion of innovations results in market disruptions and convergences. The latter create new markets and value networks, impact the scope and scale of consumption and related businesses changing the nature of competition and market dynamics. Such evolution affects all sectors of economic systems including processes of integration and globalization, causing enterprises to restructure in order to maintain or strengthen their market position.
Aldona Glińska-Neweś, Agata Sudolska, Arkadiusz Karwacki, Joanna Górka
Nowadays it is more and more frequently emphasized that organization’s ability to innovate is an explanatory factor in determining its competitiveness. It refers to the fact that contemporary organizations act under permanent pressure of economic, technological, political and social changes. Taking into account such an unstable environment, the issue that becomes signiﬁcant is enhancing organizational capacity to respond to external changes with some novel products, processes, ideas etc. (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Bessant, Lamming, Noke, & Philips, 2005; Bessant & Tidd, 2007; Ellonen, Blomqvist, & Puumalainen, 2008; Pietrzak & Łapińska, 2015).