Aktuální články z ekonomiky a managementu


CASE STUDY: DESIGN VALUE MEASURING BY SYSTEM DYNAMICS

Eva Šviráková, Jan Kramoliš

Design is an important factor that contributes to the business success thanks to its potential to strengthen their competitiveness (D’Ippolito, 2014). There is a correlation between the use of design and business performance and subsequent macroeconomic growth (Denmark National Agency for Enterprise and Housing, 2003). An example of an economy significantly influenced by design is Great Britain’s economy. Design Economy created a gross value added of 85.2 billion GBP in the United Kingdom in 2016, corresponding to 7% of British gross value added. In a longterm perspective, between 2009 and 2016 the economy influenced by design grew by 52% and expanded far beyond fields that are part of creative industries (Benton et al., 2018). Design is a specific subtype of Innovation (OECD/Eurostat, 2018); it is an important business factor and it is integrated into many aspects of production and deliveries of products. The use of design helps companies to innovate, it increases companies’ productivity and turnover (Benton et al., 2018).
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GENERATION Y AND GENERATION Z EMPLOYMENT EXPECTATIONS: A GENERATIONAL COHORT COMPARATIVE STUDY FROM TWO COUNTRIES

Dana Egerová, Lenka Komárková, Jiří Kutlák

Generational differences in various workrelated characteristics such as work values, motivational drivers, preferences and workplace expectations have become a widely discussed research and intervention topic in recent years (Lyons & Kuron, 2014; Campbell et al., 2015; Sobrino-De Toro et al., 2019). The growing interest reflects the impact of the demographic, economic and technological shifts in society on the world of work and on how organisations maintain a multigenerational workforce (Lub et al., 2016). In recent years, research has primarily focused on the members of three generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y) to explore the features that differentiate these generations from each other in terms of workplace values, expectations, attitudes and organisational outcomes (Moore et al., 2015). At present, the next generation of employees – Generation Z – is about to enter the labour market, which will present challenges and opportunities for both researchers and companies (Knapp et al., 2017; Rodriguez et al., 2019).
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TRENDS IN CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERCULTURAL MANAGEMENT

Miroslav Jurásek, Petr Wawrosz

Cultural intelligence (CQ) is the ability to effectively function in a culturally diverse environment and succeed in such environment (Ang et al., 2007). CQ gives people and organizations a competitive advantage in international markets (Ang & Inkpen, 2008; Groves & Feyerherm, 2011) and is seen as a prerequisite for the success of any subject in an international environment (Elenkov & Manev, 2009; Creque & Gooden, 2011; Groves & Feyerherm, 2011; Livermore, 2015). Present success or failure in an international and intercultural environment is strongly affected by intercultural sensitivity, cultural intelligence, and ‘cross-cultural competencies’ as an overarching way of thinking (Johnson et al., 2006). These competencies make people more capable of making important global strategic decisions and communicating better on an intercultural level.
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THE DETERMINATION OF FINANCIAL STRUCTURE IN AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHING INDUSTRY IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

Petra Růčková, Nicole Škuláňová

Every company needs financial resources for its business activities before its establishment and during its existence. For accounting purposes, these funds are arranged in the balance sheet, in which they form a part called the capital or financial structure, which, including both longterm and short-term sources of funding, is the subject of this research. In addition to the time structure, the financial structure is further divided into equity and debt sources of financing. The question that economists have been trying to answer for more than half a century is “what the right ratio of equity and debt sources of funding is?” We could find studies of various years, such as Modigliani and Miller (1963), Bradley et al. (1984), Bokpin (2009), Orlova et al. (2020), Růčková and Stavárek (2020) or Jin (2021). Unfortunately, even in such a long time, no answer has been found, because the balance of funding sources is influenced by a number of factors and therefore, countless studies dealing with this issue are still being published. In view of this fact, there is no general theory of capital structure, as stated by Myers (2001).
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JODRIVERS OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE: WHAT CAN WE OBSERVE IN THE CZECH FOOD INDUSTRY?

Gabriela Trnková, Zdeňka Žáková Kroupová

The production of food products is one of the strategic branches of the manufacturing industry, as it supplies food to the market and thus ensures the diet of the population. In 2018, based on data from the Ministry of Industry and Trade (MPO, 2019), the food industry accounted for 5.4% of the total value added of the manufacturing industry. Furthermore, 7.6% of employees in the total number of manufacturing industry workers demonstrate social importance, however, with a significant wage disparity compared to other sectors of the manufacturing industry. The business structure of the Czech food industry is represented mainly by small and medium-sized enterprises and so the importance of this sector is also irreplaceable from rural development point of vies. However, in a strong competitive environment, more and more production concentration and at the same time specialization are manifested.
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