Alireza Khorakian, Mostafa Jahangir
Innovation is widely considered as an important factor for competitiveness and has been a focus of research for decades (Szabo, Soltés, & Herman, 2013). Innovation is very important for organizations and companies, because it helps them to gain a constant competitive advantage in today’s uncertain environment; and they can dominate their rivals (Teigland, Di Gangi, Flåten, Giovacchini, & Pastorino, 2014). Organization have to innovate in order to survive (Bowers & Khorakian, 2014). Because of rapid changes and intense competition in IT industry, IT companies need more innovation to grow and survive. Those companies who cannot present innovative products and services to the market constantly will definitely lose (Constantinides, 2013). One can refer to such kinds of companies as AOL, WebTV, Napser, Alta Vista, Nokia, Fairchild and Palm Computing (Bouman, 2010).
Jalil Heidary Dahooei, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Amir Salar Vanaki, Hamid Reza Firoozfar, Mehdi Keshavarz-Ghorabaee
Nowadays, organizations may deal with a variety of issues challenging the decision making such as overflow of data, lack of information, lack of knowledge and insufficiency of reports (Lin, Tsai, Shiang, Kuo, & Tsai, 2009). Over the years, management information systems including DSS, ES, EIS, and so on have been widely supported companies with their decisions; however, a key missing capability to manage decisions for emergencies, monitoring competition, collect data from different points of views, and carrying out constant analyses of numerous data and consider different variants of organization performance, is the major cause of failure to adequately meet the needs of enterprise decision-makers (Olszak & Ziemba, 2007). Given the widespread changes and the dynamics of today’s environment, organizations need to use new information systems that can analyse the various causal relationships both within and outside the organization. Hence they move towards using business intelligence (Gangadharan & Swami, 2004; Duan & Da Xu, 2012).
Miroslava Knapková, Alena Kaščáková
Households represent one of the economic subjects entering to the market mechanism. The microeconomic theory focuses on households mostly as units of consumption, savings, partly as production units. Households participate on the side of the supply as well as on the side of the demand (Samuelson & Nordhaus, 2013; Mankiw, 1999). Households´ specific status on the supply side arises from the fact that households offer their ability to work at the labour market. When considering households on the demand side, mostly demand for goods and services that satisfied households´ needs must be included.
Emil Vacík, Miroslav Špaček, Jiří Fotr, Lukáš Kracík
Project Portfolio Management (PPM) deals with the coordination and control of multiple projects that pursue the same strategic goals and compete for the same resources, whereby managers prioritize among projects to achieve strategic benefits. PPM deals with simultaneously managing multiple projects and includes defining values, specifying priorities, solving conflicts between projects as well as defining organizational structure and the rules of its functions (Spradlin & Kutoloski, 1999). To provide maximum value to the organization, the portfolio must contain a balance of project types and risk levels as well as limit the number of projects to ensure that all projects can be resourced effectively (Killen, Hunt, & Kleinschmidt, 2008). According to numerous studies, project portfolio management is currently applied in the practice of nearly all modern enterprises (Miguel, 2006).
Ivana Kraftová, Iveta Doudová, Radim Miláček
In July 2014, the German agency GTAI (Germany Trade & Invest) released a comprehensive document named Industry 4.0 with a subtitle, Smart Manufacturing for the Future, identifying Germany as a potential global leader in digital economy development based on the definition of Industry 4.0. (MacDougall, 2014) When the elements of electronics and information technology in industrial processes were used in the late 1960s, the imaginary door opened to the start of the industrial revolution, the fourth in row.