Pavol Kita, František Križan, Kristína Bilková, Milan Zeman, Tomáš Siviček
A myriad of factors influences every area of human activity. Recognition of these factors enables a responsible approach in environmental organization, modification and subsequent adaptation. This is also true for a consumer which feels a lack of the availability of specific merchandise. If this need is not satisfied, the consumer does one of two things, either he searches for a product which can satisfy the need or tries to suppress the need (Kita, 2016). In this respect, cross-border shopping offers new sources of opportunities to satisfy needs, find more suitable financial conditions or change expectations about a product. This means that these consumers may have a tendency to spend more in search for the highest quality among local or branded products. In the context of travelling abroad, Choi et al. (2016) claim that shopping has become a determining factor affecting destination choice. Travelling to shop abroad represents a specific aspect of shopping (Bygvrå, 2019; Spierings & van der Velde, 2008; Timothy & Butler, 1995; Powęska, 2008) when other regions attract new consumers (Balogh & Pete, 2018; Doong, Wang, & Law, 2012).
Jelena Stankevičienė, Marta Nikanorova, Gentjan Çera
Sustainability and sustainable economic development nowadays have become essential goals the world is challenged to achieve and a constant concern for policymakers (Garud & Gehman, 2012; Markard, Raven, & Truffer, 2012; Millar, McLaughlin, & Börger, 2019). Nowadays, the world is facing with the problém related to the inefficiently used resources and increased generated waste (D’Amato et al., 2017). The current economic model uses “takemake-waste” industrial model known as linear economy (make, use, dispose) (Kalmykova, Sadagopan, & Rosado, 2018). This paradigm does not take into account the fact that there is a limited amount of resources. Therefore, the world could face serious problems such as resource shortage due to the increasing economic volumes and amount of resources used to produce and offer goods and services.
Vítězslav Hálek, Anna Borkovcová, František Hašek
In a global environment, where a major part of a business operates in an international environment, financial indicators seem insufficient, especially because they are historical indicators; they are unstable and do not reflect future developments. The instability in the environment of competition urges businesses to introduce a strategy focusing on the critical areas and factors that have impact on the business survival in the long term (He & Lu, 2018; Peršić, Janković, & Krivačić, 2017). Measuring the performance of companies must be based not only on the financial indicators but increasingly also on the non-financial ones. The financial indicators are best suited for use in strategic management, where they indicate whether the implemented stratégy helps to improve. The non-financial indicators determine the short-term direction of the organization and their identification is usually quite complex and sometimes subjective. The non-financial indicators are usually determined based on the experience and knowledge of the managers of the company (Režňáková, Karas, & Strnadová, 2017).
Ahmet Hakan Ozkan, Meral Elci, Melisa Erdilek Karabay, Hakan Kitapci, Cinar Garip
In mature markets such as the markets of the United States, the organizations aim to form the best teams to be more effective in a competitive environment. But turnover is a threat to effective organizations. It is also an extra cost for the institutions. Therefore the managers try to keep turnover under control. But it is a challenging task because there is a lot of variables that influence turnover intention. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and empowerment are chosen as the main antecedents of turnover intention. Meta-analysis studies showed that organizational commitment and job satisfaction are the strongest predictors of turnover intention (Tett & Meyer, 1993; Choi & Kim, 2016; Coomber & Barriball, 2006; Kim & Kao, 2014). Tett and Meyer (1993) reported that job satisfaction and turnover intention had the highest negative correlation among the other factors affecting turnover intention. The metaanalysis study of Pagilagan (2017) accepted organizational commitment and empowerment as the main antecedents of turnover intention.
Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Piotr Zaborek
Relationships in the supply chain have been a longstanding theme of research (e.g. Ailawadi et al., 2010; Corsten & Kumar, 2005; Vlachos et al., 2008). Manufacturer-retailer relationships have changed in recent decades due to the growing power of retailers (Amato & Amato, 2009) reinforced by concentration processes in retailing (Burt & Sparks, 2003), the emergence of mega-retailers and their internationalization, and the rise of the Internet. The shift in bargaining power toward retailers is manifested by the growing market shares of private brands (Chimhundu, 2011). On the heels of these trends, changes have come in business models of both retailers and producers (e.g. Ritala et al., 2014; Witek-Hajduk, 2017). The role of retailers has evolved “from mere service providers to market makers” (Hamilton & Petrovic, 2011). The growing power of retailers has prompted many manufacturers of consumer goods to establish their own or controlled retail channels and/or to produce goods under retailers’ private labels often competing with their own brands. Consequently, various forms of cooperation and competition have developed giving rise to the phenomenon of coopetition (Kim et al., 2013).