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DOES CORPORATE GOVERNANCE INFLUENCE FIRM VALUE IN BANGLADESH? A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

Mohammed Nazim Uddin, Mosharrof Hosen, Mustafa Manir Chowdhury, Tanbina Tabassum, Manjurul Alam Mazumder

Corporate governance has been a critical issue focused by regulatory bodies, policymakers, and academicians to improve the economic and sustainability conditions in developing countries for over a decade (Brown et al., 2011; Wintoki et al., 2012; Claessens, 2006). Additionally, the collapse of corporate governance has compromised the government legally, financially, and economically, resulting in a lack of accountability in Bangladesh. An organised financial system includes proper asset allocation, fund abuse prevention, minority interest protection, and timely dividend payment to improve the corporate governance system and enable corporate laws to enhance firm value (La Porta, 2006). In a competitive global market, a robust regulatory framework is required to mandate organisational compliance involving policies and procedures to ensure accountability (Uddin et al., 2019).
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INFLUENCE OF LOGISTICS COMPETITIVENESS AND LOGISTICS COST ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: AN FSQCA QUALITATIVE APPROACH

Mohan Saini, Denisa Hrušecká

Logistics has become one of the key vertical in the organization and as an important industry for an economy as a whole. It plays an important role in the economic development of a country, including various infrastructure development to support and enhance manufacturing and other sectors. The economy has to perform efficiently in this sector for supporting a growth in all other sectors. To provide a visibility on the same, World Bank publishes index for providing visibility on the performance and scope for improvement in logistics sectors of economies. This index is known as logistics performance index and this has been included in this study for understanding the effect on economic development of the country along with the logistics cost.
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PERCEPTIONS OF PERSONALIZATION IN COMPANY-CONSUMER INTERACTIONS ON SOCIAL NETWORK: EXPERIMENT CONDUCTED IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Ludvík Eger, Lenka Komárková, Veronika Zákružná

Social media (SM) has become one of the largest environments of human interaction. Growth in social network use is evident in developed countries, and to an even greater extent in developing countries (Internet World Stats, 2020). In 2019, 53% of EU enterprises used at least one type of SM and 86% of these used SM to build their image and market their products. Additionally, more than 54% of the people (16–74 years old) living in the EU used the Internet for participating in social networks (Eurostat, 2020a, b). DESI (2020) found that over 65% of all EU citizens use at least one form of SM, the most popular being Facebook and Instagram, especially among young people. Consequently, as the use of SM becomes increasingly common, companies seek to reach and interact with current and potential customers through SM platforms (Shanahan et al., 2019; Wang & Kim, 2017).
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AGILE APPROACH IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: FOCUS ON GENERATION Y

Olga Revutska, Kateřina Maršíková

Today, the concept of agile is increasingly associated with the success of companies. It is not only about project management but also elements of agility support success in today’s dynamic business environment. The attitude to agility may vary from generation to generation. At present, Generation Y (also called as Millennials) is increasingly represented on the labour market not only among employees but also in managerial positions. The Millennial generation has now become the largest generational cohort in the workforce. As Millennials become more prevalent in organisations and in management, there is a need to understand how these persons will manage the incoming generation of workers, how Millennials will want to be managed in the future (Crocitto & Youssef, 2003). The aim of the authors is to explore this issue concerning elements of agile management.
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INDIRECT ESTIMATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE REGIONS: THE CASE OF POLAND

Pavel Zdražil, Ivana Kraftová

The dominant determinant of development, in the current economy affected by globalization, is not the quantity of resources, but especially their productivity. Although the productivity is not everything on the way towards the successful economics, as Krugman (1997) pointed out, it is almost everything in the longrun. The premise of favourable development is therefore the effective, efficient and economical use of available resources, whose appropriate structure and rational allocation is the basis for the efficiency of the process of transforming the potential to entering real outputs. On this basis, a country or region is competing with its surroundings, as well as affecting the living conditions and quality of life of the population (Capello et al., 2011).
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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR CHANGES DURING TIMES OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON SLOVAK CONSUMERS

Lenka Veselovská, Ján Závadský, Lucia Bartková

Humankind finds itself facing unparalleled circumstances since the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 created significant changes in societies worldwide. Societies were surprised at the rapid spread of the virus and the ensuing global crisis. Due to the worldwide effects of the crises many authors compare it to natural disasters (Anderson et al., 2020; Sarkis et al., 2020; De Vito & Gómez, 2020; Haghani et al., 2020; Haroon & Rizvi, 2020). The scope of COVID-19 crisis caused significant disruptions in economic, social and health systems, thus creating a challenge for societies. For entrepreneurs, this crisis brought both problems and opportunities. These conditions laid bare their vulnerabilities and critical points. Consumers were forced to adapt their needs and shopping habits to extreme conditions influenced by both implemented and enforced government measures to stop the spread of the virus.
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THE GDPR AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EIGHT EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

Marek Zanker, Vladimír Bureš, Anna Cierniak-Emerych, Martin Nehéz

Individuals and corporations alike are aware of the need for data protection. They undergo training and perform exercises where various types data-jeopardizing techniques or cyberattacks are simulated in order to increase the resilience of society and preparedness for crisis situations (National Cyber and Information Security Agency, 2019a). With the help of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the European Commission (EC) seeks to draw a line between the personal data security and the free and uncontrolled manipulation of personal data (IT Governance Privacy Team, 2020). Since its advent, the GDPR has put burden on the shoulders of various institutions which have been struggling to share data. Not surprisingly, it brought a flareup of frustration (Bovenberg et al., 2020). The intension was good, as the GDPR would ensure and balance the fragile relationship between the data protection and other regulations, such as competition law, consumer protection or intellectual property (De Hert et al., 2018).
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THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON SALES PROMOTION IN ENTERTAINMENT COMPANIES

Dalia Štreimikienė, Asta Mikalauskienė, Urtė Sturienė, Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos

Due to the improvement of technologies and increasing number of internet users, more companies choose social networks to promote sales of goods and services, increase recognition and visibility and communication with potential clients in real time online. At the moment, internet marketing is considered one of the most powerful marketing tools, because it unites the biggest number of users and has the means to implement different aims of the companies. The quickly increased popularity of social networks and social commerce are considered the third revolution of communication that provides freedom for companies to communicate with target audience, regardless of place and time (Stoian et al., 2018; Pavlovaite & Gresiene, 2019; Zhou et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2020). Thus, the impact of internet and marketing tools, in a general sense, is a phenomenon that is highly significant in the business world and is developing quickly.
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SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION SECTOR IN POLAND

Tadeusz A. Grzeszczyk, Waldemar Izdebski, Michał Izdebski, Tadeusz Waściński

The EU policy is largely shaped by the idea of sustainable development, which is based on the assumption of satisfying the developmental aspirations of the present generation in such a way as to enable the next generations to achieve the same aspirations (Brundtland, 1987). For economists, the suitable way to sharpen this idea is to consider the various resources (including renewable and nonrenewable natural resources) that communities hold at any particular time. Resources passed to future generations should be comparable (in terms of the ability to provide an adequate standard of living) with the stocks inherited by their ancestors (Streimikiene & Mikalauskiene, 2016).
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PATTERNS OF 50 ETF OPTIONS IMPLIED VOLATILITY IN CHINA: ON IMPLIED VOLATILITY FUNCTIONS

Pengshi Li, Yan Lin, Yuting Zhong

The implied volatilities are prospective estimates which reflect future expectations about underlying asset volatility. The implied volatility can be seen as the market participants’ assessment of the uncertainty of the underlying asset. Implied volatilities are obtained by matching a set of market option prices with given strike price and time to maturity to those produced by Black-Scholes-Merton model (BSM model) using the same strike price and time to maturity. When the implied volatilities are plotted against various strike prices or different moneyness, one can obtain the implied volatility smile curve, while the pattern of implied volatilities across time to expiration is usually referred to as the term structure of implied volatilities.
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