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ASYMMETRIC EFFECTS OF TRADE OPENNESS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SELECTED ASEAN COUNTRIES

Jaka Sriyana, Akhsyim Afandi

International trade has played the role of engine of growth in many countries around the world. Export-import activities may affect the economy through some channels. First, it makes easier to access many commodities and services that lead to higher levels of income per capita and better living standards (Butkiewicz & Yanikkaya, 2011). Second, international trade among countries might also generate capital formation as an important step to the production process in the economy. The effect of international trade on income and economic growth has been intensively discussed in some papers (Altaee & Al-Jafari, 2014; Bajwa & Siddiqi, 2011; Das & Paul, 2011; Hassen, Anis, Taha, & Yosra, 2013; Hye, Wizarat, & Lau, 2016; Malefane, 2018). The vector error correction model (VECM. Over 100 developed and developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America experienced the positive impact of international trade on the increase of their income per capita (Butkiewicz & Yanikkaya, 2011). Therefore, eliminating trade barriers as an implementation of liberalization agreements is likely to boost the volume of international trade and promote economic growth rates.
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FACTORS AFFECTING THE COST OF SERVICE TRADE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

Ji Chen, Qiang Fang, Si Liu, Tomas Balezentis, Chonghui Zhang

Trade promotes economic (Drelich-Skulska & Domiter, 2018; Skulski, 2018; Bobowski, 2018), social (Radukic et al., 2019) and environmental (Munir & Ameer, 2018; Tao et al., 2017) interactions. The conceptual category of service trade has two different interpretations, broad and narrow. In a narrow sense, trade in services refers to activities in which a country meets the specific needs of other countries in a way that provides direct services and is paid in the course of the transaction. In the broad service trade, it includes both tangible activities and various intangible activities that complete the transaction without direct contact between the service provider and the user. Unless otherwise stated, trade in services usually refers to concepts in a broad perspective.
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