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COUNTRY-SPECIFIC DETERMINANTS OF INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE IN PHARMACEUTICALS: THE CASE OF POLAND AND ITS EUROPEAN UNION PARTNERS

Justyna Łapińska, Jana Meluzínová, Jiří Uhman

Pharmaceuticals are chemical and biological substances produced by the pharmaceutical industry, used in therapies and prevention of various diseases. They cover an extremely wide range of products, ranging from simple medicinal preparations, to extremely advanced technological specifics. Similar to food, pharmaceutical products are believed to be one of the most important needs of human beings. They have a significant impact on their health, often support and extend their lives. Due to their specific properties and healthcare function of pharmaceuticals, they are contained in the category of basic products and their significance is appreciated not only by buyers (patients) but also by authorities in most countries. That is why in many countries special attention is paid to the development of production and trade in pharmaceutical products.
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THE IMPACT OF SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES ON EXPORT BEHAVIOUR. EVIDENCE FROM POLISH FIRM-LEVEL DATA

Jarosław Michał Nazarczuk, Stanisław Umiński

The establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZ), and other types of privileged areas, is a common policy approach adopted by countries in order to attract domestic and foreign capital, increase exports or employment, increase trade openness or facilitate minor economic transitions within the country. By setting a preferential business climate, with lower taxes and tariffs made available in a restricted territory, governments promote investment inflow and encourage flourishing businesses to grow and cluster within zones, thus generating positive spill-over effects to the neighbouring areas.
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CHANGES IN INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE AND POTENTIAL: THE CASE OF LITHUANIA

Asta Saboniene

Every economy aspires to enlarge the share of high-tech industries in its industrial structure, considering this share as one of the main determinants of country’s economic development. Hence, the induction of high and medium-high technology industries through R&D support, stimulation of innovation activities and higher quality may help economies to avoid getting trapped in the low-tech specialization during the long term.
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ON THE GRAVITY EQUATION OF TRADE: A CASE OF GERMANY

Jiří Mazurek

The gravity model (or equation) of international trade is an economic analogy to Newton’s Law of gravity. The economic version of this law assumes that international bilateral trade is directly proportional to ‘sizes’ of trading economies, and indirectly proportional to their distance.
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THE EFFECT OF THE EXCHANGE RATE ON INDUSTRY-LEVEL TRADE FLOWS IN CZECHIA

Jana Šimáková, Daniel Stavárek

The relationship between exchange rates and international trade belongs among the topics that have attracted considerable interest in both academic research and policy making. An extensive body of literature has been published, particularly since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, which brought about floating exchange rates of the major world currencies and increased exchange rate uncertainty. The effects of exchange rate on international trade can be examined from various perspectives.
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ECONOMIC DEGLOBALIZATION – FROM HYPOTHESIS TO REALITY

Cătălin Postelnicu, Vasile Dinu, Dan-Cristian Dabija

Benefits of globalization in the economy of the country is a contentious issue not only in general public but also among academics and professionals of the world economy and international trade, management and marketing, who hold important positions in European or international financial institutions.
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DETERMINANTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION’S TRADE – EVIDENCE FROM A PANEL ESTIMATION OF THE GRAVITY MODEL

Michał Bernard Pietrzak, Justyna Łapińska

In the world’s economy the last two decades have been a period of development of regional integration groups. A number of new groups came into being and the already existing ones followed the path of deepening the integration process.
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THE ECONOMIC CRISIS AND COMPANY MANAGEMENT: INFLUENCES AND CONSEQUENCES

Barbora Antonová, Šárka Zapletalová

The global crisis in 2007–2012 brought aboutdramatic changes to the business environmentin both the global and international context. The impact of this crisis is visible in the changed market supply and demand as well as in the management of businesses across all industries.
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