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IS THERE A TREND OF EUROIZATION OF EU COUNTRIES STILL USING THEIR NATIONAL CURRENCIES? TRADE AND INVOICING

Jan Mačí

Once entering the European Union, the Czech Republic as well as at present six other countries which are not currently members of the EMU committed to accept common currency – the euro. For example, Sweden accessed in 1995, the Czech Republic in 2004 and these two countries are still using their national currencies. By coincidence, these two countries use for payments their crowns – Czech koruna, respectively Swedish kronor. What is more, in case of these two countries, a date of EMU accession has not been set yet. In fact, due to several major unfortunately rather negative, economic events that have taken place over the last decade (i.e. financial crisis, debt crisis), and due to several ongoing economic problems of the Eurozone (e.g. significant public debt burden for Greece or Italy; the budgetary problems of Italy and, to some extent, France; esponsibility for indebtedness of national economies, etc), the relevant EU institutions do not even put pressure on countries still using their national currencies in order to fulfil the commitment of euro adoption.
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VULNERABILITY TO THE CONSEQUENCES OF BREXIT: EVIDENCE FOR POLISH AND SPANISH REGIONS

Jarosław M. Nazarczuk, Stanisław Umiński, Laura Márquez-Ramos

In this paper, we focus on Poland and Spain in order to analyse the potential consequences at the sub-national level of a reversal of European economic integration. The latest Parliament Eurobarometer survey confirms citizens’ growing support for European economic integration. In this survey (European Parliament, 2018), the 28 European member states (MS) have been positioned according to their views with reference to two dimensions. Firstly, ‘the right direction’ in their own country and, secondly, ‘the right direction’ in the European Union (EU). The question asked is: ‘At the present time, would you say that, in general, things are going in the right direction or in the wrong direction, in…? (Our country/EU)’. According to this survey, Poland is in the group of countries with the most positive perceptions in both dimensions (i.e. things are going in the right direction in both Poland and in the EU). On the other side of the spectrum, the Eurobarometer shows that citizens in Spain believe that things are taking the wrong direction, both in Spain and in the EU.
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