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FACTORS AFFECTING THE COST OF SERVICE TRADE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

Ji Chen, Qiang Fang, Si Liu, Tomas Balezentis, Chonghui Zhang

Trade promotes economic (Drelich-Skulska & Domiter, 2018; Skulski, 2018; Bobowski, 2018), social (Radukic et al., 2019) and environmental (Munir & Ameer, 2018; Tao et al., 2017) interactions. The conceptual category of service trade has two different interpretations, broad and narrow. In a narrow sense, trade in services refers to activities in which a country meets the specific needs of other countries in a way that provides direct services and is paid in the course of the transaction. In the broad service trade, it includes both tangible activities and various intangible activities that complete the transaction without direct contact between the service provider and the user. Unless otherwise stated, trade in services usually refers to concepts in a broad perspective.
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STANDARDIZATION IN SERVICES: ASSESSING THE IMPACT ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Oksana Koval, Stephen Nabareseh, Felicita Chromjaková

The service organizations develop complex service offerings and procedures to cater to the changing customers’ requirements. The increased complexity of the service processes halts effectiveness of the operations and may lead to the lower firm competitiveness over time (Schäfermeyer, Rosenkranz, & Holten, 2012). The complexity of service operations induces long waiting times for customers and high non-value added costs for the companies (George, 2003), and the diversity of the service offerings challenges effectiveness of the processes (Carlborg, Kindström, & Kowalkowski, 2013; Silvestro & Lustrato, 2015). Due to the direct customer participation in the service production, customer has power to significantly impact and distort service operations (Zomerdijk & de Vries, 2007). Thus, to tackle the issue of redundancy and improve performance, companies make determined efforts to standardize their operations.
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THE IMPACT OF TQM PRACTICES ON KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM AUTOMOTIVE DEALERSHIPS

Omar Sabbagh, Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman, Wan Rosmanira Ismail, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan Hussain

The After-Sales (AS) service is becoming a strategic business driver to maintain longterm customer retention, customer satisfaction and capital revenue in such a manner that it guarantees the continuous improvement of products and services offered to customers; AS market is up to five times larger than the new product market (Bundschuh & Dezvane, 2003), whilst it is widely agreed that the turnover of the original purchase can be tripled during the product lifespan by investing in AS services. Consequently, performance of the after-sales department should be well measured and monitored to achieve a balance between the business and the operational goals on the one hand, and their assessed values on the other (Cavalieri et al., 2007).
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Služby v kontextu podnikatelského prostředí České republiky

Miroslav Žižka

Služby se stávají v posledních desetiletích dominujícím odvětvím z hlediska zaměstnanosti a tvorby hrubého domácího produktu. Česká ekonomika prošla z tohoto pohledu velmi zásadními změnami. Na počátku transformace hospodářství v 90. letech minulého století se česká, resp. československá ekonomika řadila do struktury ISA (I - Industry, S - Services, A - Agriculture), tedy s nejvýznamnějším postavením průmyslu na tvorbě HDP, ač rozvinuté tržní ekonomiky se již v té době nalézaly ve stádiu SIA, tzn. s dominancí sektoru služeb na tvorbě HDP a zaměstnanosti pracovní síly. Transformace československého hospodářství s sebou přinesla na jedné straně hluboký absolutní pokles průmyslové a zemědělské výroby a na straně druhé významný vzestup sektoru služeb.
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