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DEMOTIVATION OF MEDICAL STAFF IN THE SELECTED HEALTH FACILITY IN SLOVAKIA

Stanislav Szabo, Bohuslava Mihalčová, Jozef Lukáč, Peter Gallo, Veronika Čabinová, Iveta Vajdová

In the context of the research on human behaviour, the issue we deal with is the reason why a people’s message is precisely that, and not another one, what forces them to act as they do. Is it an external compulsion – e.g. to escape from danger, or that they want to achieve something – to satisfy some of their needs, interests in hobbies, or because they consider it right and moral? Can a person behave in a way that has no cause, or reason? Although we distinguish between involuntary and voluntary behaviour, human behaviour in the work process is largely influenced by the will, the desire that results from the impact of several motives. The concept of motivation is the internal process, the process of psychological causes of human behaviour. These causes are motives, internal presuppositions, and internal impulses leading to certain target behaviour. The process of motivation is thus the process of activating internal assumptions, guiding human action to a certain goal of their pursuit (Nakonečný, 1992). Motivation can be defined as processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal (Robbins, 2001).
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ANALYSIS OF GREEN ECONOMY DIMENSION IN THE CONTEXT OF CIRCULAR ECONOMY: THE CASE OF BALTIC SEA REGION

Jelena Stankevičienė, Marta Nikanorova, Gentjan Çera

Sustainability and sustainable economic development nowadays have become essential goals the world is challenged to achieve and a constant concern for policymakers (Garud & Gehman, 2012; Markard, Raven, & Truffer, 2012; Millar, McLaughlin, & Börger, 2019). Nowadays, the world is facing with the problém related to the inefficiently used resources and increased generated waste (D’Amato et al., 2017). The current economic model uses “takemake-waste” industrial model known as linear economy (make, use, dispose) (Kalmykova, Sadagopan, & Rosado, 2018). This paradigm does not take into account the fact that there is a limited amount of resources. Therefore, the world could face serious problems such as resource shortage due to the increasing economic volumes and amount of resources used to produce and offer goods and services.
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FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF GENERATION Y ON THE CZECH WINE MARKET

Jana Němcová, Pavla Staňková

According to Tibor Nyitray, President of the Wine Growers’ Union of the Czech Republic, wine is not only a product of nature, but also pleasure and joy, work and entrepreneurship, the result of long-term education and practise, the reason for meetings and association, and finally science and trade. Wine and winegrowing has made considerable progress in the last twenty years. Legislation has improved, the quality of equipment has risen, modern technologies have been developed, and a significant number of wines have obtained remarkable achievements at international competitions. Everything now depends on winemakers. They should not ‘only’ sell the wine that produce, but they should seek to build a good reputation for their products, gain the permanent confidence of consumers, and offer interesting and attractive wines. It is important that they will be more interested in what wines customers want to receive from them, and their aim should be in the first instance to satisfy consumers, and only after sales (Bárta, 2013).
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COMPETITIVENESS OF SLOVAK ENTERPRISES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN REGION

Milota Vetráková, Lukáš Smerek

Many changes occurred in the management of the economy in Slovakia caused by the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The process of globalization into Slovak economic conditions was limited due to initial alertness. While the governments of Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic presented themselves as pro-reform, the Slovak government preferred Slovak privatizers (Kosír, 2016). Nevertheless, the retail chain Billa entered Slovak market in 1990, followed by automobile giant Volkswagen in 1991, American retail chain Kmart in 1992, which took over the department stores Prior. Because of the reforms implemented, Slovakia gains confidence from foreign investors. Significant foreign capital inflows into the emerging business environment of the Slovak economy, such as Heineken, Coca-Cola, McDonald’s and others. A courtesy of Slovak government has also become reprivatisation of VSŽ Košice, which became part of the U.S. Steel, based in Pittsburgh in the USA.
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THE CZECH ADAPTATION OF THE KLEIN ET AL.’S UNIDIMENSIONAL TARGET-NEUTRAL SCALE OF COMMITMENT

Jakub Procházka, Anna Židlická, Hynek Cígler, Martin Vaculík, Howard J. Klein

Organizational commitment, along with job satisfaction, is one of the two most often researched work attitudes (Riketta, 2008). It is the center of attention because it affects key variables in organizations such as the wellbeing of employees (e.g. Sui, 2002), absence due to illness (e.g. Meyer & Maltin, 2010), length of stay in an organization (e.g. Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974), turnover intentions (e.g. Vandenberghe & Trembla, 2008), job satisfaction (Ulbegi & Yalcin, 2016) and job performance (Riketta, 2002). Despite being a key construct in management, we are not aware of any published studies on a validated scale of organizational commitment in Czech. Such a situation is a limitation for researchers intending to examine organizational commitment, or at least monitor its influence when examining other variables. There is also a lack of a reliable scale which could be used when surveying employee attitudes within an organization. In this study, we address this gap and adapt an internationally used organizational commitment scale into Czech. The adapted scale will allow professionals and researchers to measure organizational commitment in Czech organizations reliably and to compare the commitment of Czech employees with foreign samples.
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THE ROLE OF PERCEIVED RISK AND SECURITY LEVEL IN BUILDING TRUST IN E-GOVERNMENT SOLUTIONS

Joanna Ejdys, Romualdas Ginevicius, Zoltan Rozsa, Katarina Janoskova

One of the factors determining the current and future social and economic advance is the level of society’s digitisation, which is applicable to each sphere of human life (Ejdys & Halicka, 2018; Polak-Sopinska & Wisniewski, 2009). This level is measured by the scale and scope of the phenomenon, i.e. subjective, geographical dynamics of change and the scale of effects caused (Chodakowska & Nazarko, 2017). Digitalisation processes gave rise to a new type of society referred to as the information society. E-government is one of the areas of ICT application in the information society. The term e-government, i.e. electronic public administration, refers to a systém (organisational and legal, institutional, and IT) which enables to deal with administrative matters by electronic means. According to the definition proposed by the European Commission, e-government is the use of ICT tools and systems to provide better public services to citizens and businesses (Digital Single Market: Glossary).
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WHY EMPLOYEES SHARE THEIR KNOWLEDGE

Jana Matošková

Motivation research has a long history of considering employee motives and needs, and it is still popular. To find the reason, it is not necessary to look for a long time. Numerous studies have shown that employees could be the most valuable asset that organizations have. Employees, with their knowledge, skills, abilities, and work attitudes, influence how efficiently resources and means are used. Kazdová (2012) says that the employee who is motivated speaks about the firm positively, sees his/her future in the firm, and makes an extra effort which leads to the improvement of organizational outputs. According to Swift, Balkin, and Matusik (2010), employee motivation influences knowledge sharing in the organization, among other things. If the employee is motivated, he/she is more willing to share knowledge (Hau, Kim, Lee, & Kim, 2013).
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MODELLING INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGH GROWTH FIRMS: MICRO LEVEL APPROACH

Renata Korsakienė, Vratislav Kozak, Svajonė Bekešienė, Rasa Smaliukienė

High-g rowth firms (HGFs) make a significant impact on the development of countries’ economies and micro, or firm level, factors are vital in understanding this phenomenon. Indeed, HGFs are unique engine of national economies that contribute essentially to economic growth which is much sought after in internationally open economic environment. More specifically, HGFs internationalization is perceived as a source of productivity, export and employment growth in the country. Economic policies of countries, as a macro level stimulus, aim to provide impetus for HGFs development, however understanding micro level factors of HGFs creation, development and internationalization are the basis for macro level decisions. Studying and modelling of micro level factors not only provides an opportunity to understand the phenomenon of HGFs but also develops the basis for policy decisions especially in the field of business internationalization.
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THE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AS A CONSTANT CHALLENGE FOR COMPANY MANAGEMENT – AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND POLAND

Marcela Sokolova, Vaclav Zubr, Anna Cierniak-Emerych, Szymon T. Dziuba

Due to the pressure of global competition, shortened product-life cycles and the increasing opportunity to imitate product designs or their elements, companies continuously focus on innovations as one of their main agenda in order to maintain their global or national competitiveness. Besides, these innovations are considered as an ultimate source of productivity improvement, the growth in sales volume, and the capability of a company in question to stay competitive on the global market (Liao, Hu, Chen, & Lin, 2015). Companies perceive the need to continuously adapt, develop, and innovate as an economic necessity that results from global market pressures. The enhancement of product design and quality, accessorial technological services, their accessibility and reliability are no longer only seen as a benefit but rather an ultimate condition for the sustainability of company competitiveness.
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MEDIATING EFFECT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP AND PERFORMANCE

Elif Baykal, Cemal Zehir

The challenging work environment of the 21st century has resulted in a great deal of global, societal and organizational change (Fry, 2003). We are experiencing a global crisis of confidence that has spread among many people and organizations (Parameshwar, 2005). Corporate fraud (Schroth & Elliot, 2002), negativity stemming from the downsizing of companies, anxieties resulting from emerging technologies (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003), and the financial crisis have affected the way employers see their organizations and leaders. Congruent with that reality, organizations have started to give more importance to positivity and developing strong characteristics of employees, rather than focusing on negativity and weaknesses (Avey, Luthans, & Jensen, 2009). Similarly, academics and organizational behaviour experts started to focus on positivity and positive sides of organizational life. This change in mentality brought about the need for a more holistic leadership style that can integrate minds and souls of people: namely, spiritual leadership.
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