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PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF FORMS AND TOOLS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN THE SME SECTOR

Małgorzata Adamska

How can you imagine the future of marketing communication? The last several decades have brought the unexpected development of marketing concepts and tools (Keller, 2009), conditioned by changes in the economic environment: globalization processes, internationalization of enterprises, increase in competitiveness, social change, development of information technology, popularization of proinnovation culture and, finally, “acceleration” of processes. Against the background of these market conditions, presentation and analysis of currently used communication forms and tools in the sector of small and medium enterprises, in terms of types and forms of messages, seems to be a very interesting topic and will enable diagnosing existing status and drawing conclusions about future organizational behaviour in this area. The need for conducting this kind of research results from constant changes in the architecture of marketing communication. The aim of the study was to learn the approach of small and medium entrepreneurs to customer value management processes through the prism of: quantity, intensity, quality of communication forms and tools. The research problem is the answer to the question: what forms and tools of marketing communication find practical application in the SME sector?
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LEARNING FROM THE SALES CONVERSION RATE THROUGHOUT ITS PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS: A CASE OF STUDY FOR THE SPANISH AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR

Manuela Saco, Aida Galiano, Vicente Rodríguez

The conversion rate in sales is a fundamental parameter to assess the performance of the Marketing and sales departments. Fisher (2013) claims that when customers visit a store, retailers try to convert traffic by making sure there is the right product, in the right place, at the right time, and with the right price. At that moment, the conversion rate is a crucial value to measure the effectiveness of the Marketing policies and commercial teams in relation to consumer behaviour. The conversion rate (CR) measures the ratio between the total number of visitors entering an establishment and those who make a purchase (on a daily, monthly, quarterly and annual basis). The conversion rate can also be useful to analyse the evolution of the commercial efficiency in a business or to compare similar establishments in which the conversion rates are significantly different. Somehow, the efficiency depends on the adequate commercial performance of the sales team, trying to attract the largest number of potential buyers visiting the establishment (Rodríguez, Olarte-Pascual, & Saco, 2017). Therefore, the conversion rate grows with an excellent customer service and better execution of the store processes.
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COMPARISON OF GROCERY SHOPPING BEHAVIOUR OF SLOVAK RESIDENTS ON THE SLOVAK-AUSTRIAN BORDER: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY – HAINBURG AN DER DONAU

Pavol Kita, František Križan, Kristína Bilková, Milan Zeman, Tomáš Siviček

A myriad of factors influences every area of human activity. Recognition of these factors enables a responsible approach in environmental organization, modification and subsequent adaptation. This is also true for a consumer which feels a lack of the availability of specific merchandise. If this need is not satisfied, the consumer does one of two things, either he searches for a product which can satisfy the need or tries to suppress the need (Kita, 2016). In this respect, cross-border shopping offers new sources of opportunities to satisfy needs, find more suitable financial conditions or change expectations about a product. This means that these consumers may have a tendency to spend more in search for the highest quality among local or branded products. In the context of travelling abroad, Choi et al. (2016) claim that shopping has become a determining factor affecting destination choice. Travelling to shop abroad represents a specific aspect of shopping (Bygvrå, 2019; Spierings & van der Velde, 2008; Timothy & Butler, 1995; Powęska, 2008) when other regions attract new consumers (Balogh & Pete, 2018; Doong, Wang, & Law, 2012).
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DETERMINANTS OF THE SELECTION OF TRAVEL AGENCIES ON POLISH TOURIST SERVICES MARKET

Anna Mazurek-Kusiak

The tourist services market is a very variable and difficult to predict market (Chen & Kang, 2015) that reacts quickly to factors and turmoil occurring in the international, national and local environment. Impact of these factors is evident both on the supply and on the demand side (Zdon-Korzeniowska & Rachwał, 2011). Studies by Millana and Esteban (2004), Silva and Gonçalves (2016) and Chih-Wen (2016) showed that customers are not loyal to their travel agencies. Changing the organizer of tourist services is not a problem for tourists, nor does it raise any resistance such as may occur, for example, when changing the telephone operator, bank or energy supplier. Thus, it is more difficult for travel agencies to acquire regular customers than for other service companies. In addition, they must adapt the offer more precisely to the needs of customers to convince them to purchase the services offered (Rudawska, 2010), therefore it is so important to know the main goals of tourist trips, customers’ needs and determinants, that guide the selection of the organizer of a tourism. In order to gain their trust, they must choose appropriate communication channels to establish a dialogue with the customer, promote their own brand and the tourist products they sell.
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ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EWOM ON SOCIAL MEDIA FOR COMPANIES

David Prantl, Michal Mičík

The importance of social media has risen significantly in recent years. The use of social media results in a competitive advantage for companies, thanks to which they can strengthen their relationship with customers (Vendemia 2017; Nacimento & Silveria, 2017; Eger, Mičík, & Řehoř, 2018). Social media can be defined as on-line applications that allow people to share information and learn from others (Wilson, 2010). Companies are very active on social media. They manage their profiles, invest in advertising and communicate with customers. However, only a small part of online communication about the company is in the hands of the particular company (Huete-Alcocer, 2017). A large percentage of online posts about companies is created directly by users and spread by electronic word of mouth – eWOM (Brown et al., 2007). Such content is referred to as usergenerated content.
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THE TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS, PRODUCT NEWNESS AND MARKET INFORMATION

Dariusz Dabrowski

Nowadays, technological progress creates a good opportunity for companies to develop and launch products that incorporate advanced technologies. This process is particularly present in the case of high-tech companies as they are technology oriented (Im, Vorhies, Kim, & Heiman, 2016). Firms utilize advanced technology to improve the functionality of their products and in this way they try to satisfy the customers’ needs to a large extent (Kocak, Carsrud, & Oflazoglu, 2017) and, as a consequence, to enhance the new products and the firm’s performance (Chen, Tang, Jin, Xie, & Li, 2014; Zhou, Yim, & Tse, 2005). This seems to be a straightforward way for companies to create new products. However, several uncertainties emerge when developing technologically advanced products. Nearly thirty years ago Bonnet (1986) pointed out that the uncertainty associated with developing and marketing new technologically advanced products is twofold.
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DECISION TREE MODELLING OF E-CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCES FOR INTERNET MARKETING COMMUNICATION TOOLS DURING BROWSING

Jolanta Sabaitytė, Vida Davidavičienė, Jarmila Straková, Jurgita Raudeliūnienė

The rapid development of information communication technologies (ICT) has expanded the possibilities for marketing communication. In order to increase business competitiveness and carry out effective marketing activities, it has therefore become important to acquire knowledge about e-consumers and to identify significant elements that shape their virtual behaviour and influence their decision to buy. An analysis of scientific literature revealed that there is a gap in knowledge with regards to the e-consumer behaviour of different generations, as customer segments, and their preferences in the purchase phase. The purchase phase is characterised by different internet marketing communication elements, which influence the performance of browsing and searching tasks. The goal of the research presented in this article was to determine the most significant internet marketing communication elements during the purchase phase of the e-consumer journey by performing a browsing task and using the mathematical decision tree approach.
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INFLUENCE OF STORE CHARACTERISTICS ON PRODUCT AVAILABILITY IN RETAIL BUSINESS

Goran Avlijas, Nikola Milicevic, Danilo Golijanin

Retail stock-out refers to a situation where a demanded product is not available to the customer in the expected location or is not in a saleable condition (ECR Europe, 2003). Many studies conducted in the last fifty years have shown that the average stock-out rate (percentage of the unavailable products at the time of the audit or purchase) is generally constant and varies between 7% and 8% (Aastrup & Kotzab, 2010). Although extensively studied for decades (e.g. Corsten & Gruen, 2003; Fernie & Grant, 2008; Zinn & Liu, 2001), the phenomenon of stock-outs remains one of the major problems for retailers and manufacturers (Aastrup & Kotzab, 2010).
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HOW DO THE NATIONAL TOURISM ORGANIZATIONS USE THE SOCIAL MEDIA?

Jan Hruška, Martina Pásková

The National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) are key actors of destination management at national level. The complexity and professionalism of their involvement in tourism management has been growing in recent years, both in the field of the destination marketing and in terms of tourism promotion forms, support for statistics and tourism research. An important impetus and new opportunities for the development of NTO’s activities represent new technologies, especially HDR photo and video, panoramic photos, virtual reality and mobile technologies, including extended reality. These technologies change the NTO marketing (Lange-Faria & Elliot, 2012). New technologies are also part of the social media, the most dynamic element of the current NTO marketing and, more generally, the destination marketing at all geographical levels (Kiráľová & Pavlíčeka, 2015).
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WEBSITE USABILITY AND USER EXPERIENCE DURING SHOPPING ONLINE FROM ABROAD

Jozef Bucko, Lukáš Kakalejčík

Website usability and user experience are key measures of website quality (Sivaji & Tzuaan, 2012) and a key component of the websites that are commercially successful (Lowry et al., 2006). For today’s users, there are so many options in the environment of the Internet that each misstep in meeting user’s expectations might result in loss of the potential customer (Kakalejčík, 2016). Krug (2014) consider the usable website to be a place where a person of average (or even below average) ability and experience can figure out how to use the website in order to accomplish something without it being more difficult than is the value obtained by using it. The usable website has several attributes. It is useful, learnable, memorable, effective, efficient, desirable and delightful. Moreover, Aziz, Kamaludin, and Sulaiman (2013) add satisfaction and accessibility as additional features. Casaló, Flavián, and Guinalíu (2008) claim that perceived usability is an indirect factor that affects customer loyalty and positive word-of-mouth through satisfaction.
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