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THE CONTRIBUTION OF INNOVATION ACTORS INTO BUSINESS R&D FUNDING – DOES THE SUBSTITUTION EFFECT OF PUBLIC SUPPORT WORK IN THE EU?

Peter Pisár, Ina Ďurčeková, Mária Stachová

Many authors consider innovation to be the key element of economic growth and competitiveness of firms (Distanont & Khongmalai, 2018; Kuncoro & Suriani, 2018) and countries (Akis, 2015; Ciocanel & Pavalesce, 2015; Akcali & Sismanoglu, 2015; Krstić, Stanišić, & Radivojević, 2016; Şener & Saridoğan, 2011). Even though research and development (furthermore just “R&D”) and innovation are not the same thing, R&D is a crucial part of innovation (Edquist, 2006). The importance of R&D is shown in the fact that one of the main priorities of the EU strategy “Europe 2020” is the increase of R&D expenditure in the EU member states (European Commission, 2010). However, we maintain that it is not only important to monitor R&D expenditure as one aggregate indicator, but to also look at it incrementally from the point of involvement of various innovation actors in R&D funding. Since firms are considered to be the key Innovation actor (Eggink, 2013), we decided to examine the financing of business R&D from various sources of funds (business, government, university, non-profit organization funds and funds from abroad).
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COLLABORATION FOR INNOVATION IN SMALL CEE COUNTRIES

Viktor Prokop, Jan Stejskal, Oto Hudec

Firms are struggling to gain competitive advantage to resist the ever-increasing global market pressures. Many strategic management studies have identified several essential pillars of building firm’s strategy, often highlighting positive relationships between the use of human resources and the firm performance (Collins & Clark, 2003; Wright et al., 2005). Thus, human capital as the stock of productive knowledge and skills embodied in individuals is a crucial strategic production factor. Knowledge and human resource are intrinsically related concepts since it is people who can learn, generate, utilise and disseminate knowledge in collaborative networks. Knowledge is a primary input in the innovation process, and the ability to use knowledge is crucial in achieving high innovation performance and the strategic competitive advantage (Bock, Opsahl et al., 2012).
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IMPORTANCE OF R&D EXPENDITURE FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SELECTED CEE COUNTRIES

Irena Szarowská

Research and development (R&D) is of fundamental importance in the creation of knowledge, products and technologies (Solow, 1956; Jones, 1995; Köhler et al., 2012; OECD, 2012; Szarowská, 2016; 2017). Generally, governments have three main instruments for financing R&D (own R&D, direct funding and indirect funding), each of which has advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of economic theory (David et al., 2000). The financial crisis prompted many governments to introduce tough fiscal consolidation measures and to prioritize other issues over R&D. However, Hud and Hussinger (2015) note that to prevent firms from reducing their R&D expenses and to maintain national R&D capacities, policymakers in many countries reacted immediately to the crisis and increased the public R&D budget.
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