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ESTIMATION OF INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING IMPACT ON CORPORATE TAX GAP IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Lukáš Moravec, Jan Rohan, Jana Hinke

The issue of base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) caused by multinational companies is a potential important impediment to tax collections. Because tax planning schemes utilized gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax jurisdiction where there is insufficient of no economic activity (Hines, 2014; OECD, 2017). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has estimated the general annual revenue loss of USD 100 to 240 billion due to the BEPS OECD (2017). Dharmapala and Riedel (2013) focused on tax motivated income shifting between parent companies and their affiliates. The parent companies have almost 60% affiliates established in low-tax jurisdictions. It resulted in profit shifting from the high-tax parent companies’ jurisdictions to the low-tax affiliates’ jurisdictions where the profit is taxed with the lower tax rate.
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INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY AND BUSINESS CYCLE: AUSTRIA IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY

Pavol Minárik, Marek Vokoun, František Stellner

The period of economic recession and crisis usually intensifies the discussion of policies that aim to increase economic performance. Among these we often find suggestions to increase support of research and development, entrepreneurship and innovations. Economic crises create certain pressures to search for adequate policies in this respect; at the same time, crises seem to be the appropriate periods for implementing new policies. However, the research of the relation between business cycles and innovative activities is still rather marginal.
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