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CITY SPECIALISATION AND DIVERSIFICATION IN SOUTH EAST EUROPE (SEE) COUNTRIES

Ivana Rašić Bakarić, Katarina Bačić, Sunčana Slijepčević

Cities are considered centres of economic activity and, presumably, they remain attractive locations for manufacturing firms so as long as benefits agglomeration economies prevail over the costs of agglomeration diseconomies. Agglomeration economies attract firms and labour to co-locate, while agglomeration diseconomies push firms and labour to relocate to decentralised locations (Richardson, 1995). Industry patterns formed across urban landscape of a country or a region will largely depend on the interplay of these opposite forces, as well as on industry- and firm-specific issues. The size of agglomeration and the economic structure may be interrelated and in some economies, mostly larger, patterns of city specialisation emerge. All cities are characterised by being either specialised or diversified, depending on whether their economic activity is concentrated in similar or dissimilar types of production – and larger cities tend to be more diversified (Duranton & Puga, 2000).
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CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY EFFECTS: THE CASE OF CANADIAN CITIES

Dimitrios Giannias, Eleni Sfakianaki

Environmental amenities have been associated with economic development since earliest time; for example, Egypt and Mesopotamia developed in the river valleys of the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates in the ancient times, mainly because the environment in these valleys was favorable for agriculture. Although man-made facilities are often needed to complement a natural environment, resorts such as Greek Islands and Florida beaches are, in effect, selling a type of environment peculiar to the locality in which they are situated.
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