Jaka Sriyana, Akhsyim Afandi
International trade has played the role of engine of growth in many countries around the world. Export-import activities may affect the economy through some channels. First, it makes easier to access many commodities and services that lead to higher levels of income per capita and better living standards (Butkiewicz & Yanikkaya, 2011). Second, international trade among countries might also generate capital formation as an important step to the production process in the economy. The effect of international trade on income and economic growth has been intensively discussed in some papers (Altaee & Al-Jafari, 2014; Bajwa & Siddiqi, 2011; Das & Paul, 2011; Hassen, Anis, Taha, & Yosra, 2013; Hye, Wizarat, & Lau, 2016; Malefane, 2018). The vector error correction model (VECM. Over 100 developed and developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America experienced the positive impact of international trade on the increase of their income per capita (Butkiewicz & Yanikkaya, 2011). Therefore, eliminating trade barriers as an implementation of liberalization agreements is likely to boost the volume of international trade and promote economic growth rates.
Yilmaz Bayar, Rita Remeikienė, Jan Žufan, Miloslav Novotný
The foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows have exhibited substantial increases with contri bution of relaxation of the impediments over the international flows of goods, services and capital mainly resulting from the accelerating liberalization and globalization as of 1980s. Consequently, international FDI inflows reached USD 3.111 trillion in 2007, but then contracted due to economic crises and the increasing protectionism concerns in the recent years and became USD 1.95 trillion in 2017 (World Bank, 2019a). The rapidly expanding FDI flows made the economic effects of FDI one of the muchdiscussed and studied topics in the international economics. On the one hand, the scholars have focused on the effect of FDI inflows on the economic growth, unemployment, total taxes, technological development, environmental degradation (see, e.g., Lasbrey et al., 2018).
On July 30, 2019, the government of the Czech Republic passed a draft Lobbying Act which was drawn up in accordance with the current Program Declaration of the Government of the Czech Republic, the Government Plan of Legislative Works for 2018 and Government Resolution No. 114 of 21st February 2018, approving the material proposal of the Lobbying Act. According to the Government’s Concept of the Fight Against Corruption for the years 2018 to 2022 (Government of the Czech Republic, 2018) “the intention of the government is to enable the public access to the information about the contact of politicians and high officials with lobbyists and at the same time relieve legitimate lobbying from negative connotations with which it is perceived by the public”. The aim of the article is to evaluate the lobbying regulation system in the draft Lobbying Act in the Czech Republic and to compare it with regulation models in selected European countries. A partial aim is to complement the assessment included in the Final Report on Regulatory Impact Assessment with a quantitative cost-benefit analysis by means of Ninefold theory.
Pavlína Hejduková, Lucie Kureková
Population migration continues to be a current topic linked to a wide spectrum of various external and internal factors on both international and regional levels. In contemporary literature, there is a whole score of empirical studies that deal with international migration, its determinants and impacts on the economy. However, there are only few empirical studies that deal primarily with solely regional (i.e. internal) migration in comparison to the large number of studies analyzing international migration, which is one of the main reasons for the selection of the topic of this study and its focus on internal migration and thus on movements that take place within one geopolitical entity, usually a nationstate (for more on the definition of internal migration, see, e.g., Fendel, 2014; Royuela & Ordóñez, 2016). So-called “gravity models” stemming from an analogy to Newton’s law of gravity and Ravenstein’s laws of migration are often used for modelling internal migration and the study of it, or for the analysis of the main determinates that impact these internal fluctuations of citizens; however, these gravity models of migration are often criticized for their insufficient theoretical foundation.
Lei Fang, Xuewei Zhang, Zihua Feng, Ce Cao
The economy of China has been maintaining a middle and high growth rates in the past 40 years since reform and opening-up. Railway is an important infrastructure and a major factor of economic development. It is also a witness and beneficiary of reform and opening-up. Railway in China has undergone transformation and development. Given the continuous expansion of traffic network and innovative reform of technologies, high-speed rail construction has achieved outstanding progresses. During the “12th Five-Year Plan,” the total investment of China to high-speed rail system has exceeded 1,800 billion RMB. Moreover, 3,500 billion RMB of investment is expected under railway plan in the “13th Five-Year Plan.” Currently, China owns a high-speed
rail network with the longest operation miles, the highest transportation density, and the most complicated network operation scenario in the world (Karolys et al., 2019).