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New Articles – Economics


THE EFFECT OF SECTORAL DIVISION ON GDP PER CAPITA IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

Peter Burger, Lea Šlampiaková

The presumption that the production structure of an economy is the fundamental determinant of economic performance has been confirmed by previous economic literature. There is growth observed in a country when the production structure is composed of commodities with intense returns (Reinert, 2008; Andreoni & Scazzieri, 2014). Moreover, Andreoni (2014) has noted that the proximate source of innovation is a further source of importance in economic activities with increasing returns. According to Fourastié (1951), sectors are developing along with technological and innovation developments, but not evenly. In the sectoral structure of the national economy of the Slovak Republic, the main focus had been initially on agriculture, fishing and mining, until the industrialisation process began.
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INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR, ECONOMIC POLICY UNCERTAINTY, AND INNOVATION INVESTMENT: EVIDENCE FROM CHINA

Zhenjiang Dou, Lei Wei, Jingyi Wang

Innovation-driven economic development is a global trend. Specifically, in the Sino-American trade war, the events, such as the suppression of Huawei 5G, knock the alarm bell of independent research and development (R&D) in all countries. Hence, the entire society is aware of the strategic signifikance of corporate innovation and key technologies to the companies and the entire country. Compared with traditional investments, such as fixed assets investment, the Innovation investment is featured by large capital demand, long recycling period, high risk, and others. The interruption of the capital supply chain will generate high adjustment costs and sunk costs (Ju et al., 2013; Gu et al., 2019). As important enterprise managers, institutional investors have become an important force that cannot be ignored in the current capital market.
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QUANTIFYING THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS OF A COUNTRY BASED ON THE LORENZ CURVE

Romualdas Ginevičius, Joanicjusz Nazarko, Dainora Gedvilaitė, Zdzisława Dacko-Pikiewicz

Today market players at all levels, from business operators to countries, strive to be competitive. This aspiration is not passive, and is not only about maintaining current positions. As a result of the global economic development of the world, the growth of global markets forces particular countries to increase the economic scale of the economic growth, otherwise they will lose their positions. The pursuit of an increasing share of international markets becomes the basis for a country’s competitive capacity. Only by keeping pace with the growth of the single market warranty that they remain competitive. Therefore, development becomes a hallmark of competitiveness. In this context, it is important for both science and practice to fully analyse the phenomenon of economic development.
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DETERMINANTS OF PERSISTENT AND TRANSIENT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF MILK PRODUCTION IN EU

Gabriela Trnková, Zdeňka Žáková Kroupová

The evaluation of the competitiveness of different agriculture sectors has, traditionally, been based on the measurement of technical efficiency. We focus on the dairy sector because the EU dairy sector is one of the pivotal agricultural sectors in the EU. The dairy sector currently faces several challenges arising from growing EU and global demand, price volatility, fodder crisis as a result of climate change and the fact that dairy farms are highly specialized, which on the one hand may be an advantage, on the other hand a threat due to higher vulnerability to income shocks. Milk production is carried out on mixed farms or specialized farms. In 2012, the share of the sector covered by specialized farms in the FADN, on which this analysis is based, is more than 80% in the EU-15 (EU members until the 2004 enlargement) and around 50% in the other member states. There are big differences in coverage among EU countries: only 17% of milk production in Slovakia and 19% in the Czech Republic, but full production in Ireland and Finland.
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MACROECONOMIC TIME SERIES AFFECTING THE MINIMUM AND AVERAGE WAGES OF V4 COUNTRIES

Lucie Meixnerová, Michal Krajňák

The minimum wage institute was established at the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Its purpose was to ensure the protection of the workforce. The minimum wage ensures that the labour market wage cannot fall below the determined level, which takes the form in accordance with the economic and political conditions of the country concerned (Dube et al., 2010). The determined level of the minimum wage results either from the tripartite act, which is made up of representatives of government, employers and trade unions or is enacted in relation to a percentage of the average wage level. Lopresti and Mumford (2016) mention that setting a minimum wage is a very complex problem, as its value is related to the price of labour that affects employers’ competitiveness. The minimum wage affects not only the part of the employer but also the employee, as employees want to receive fair remuneration for their work that will ensure them the required standard of living.
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