Pavla Jindrová, Viera Labudová
The World Health Organisation (WHO, 1946) defines health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’. Good health is not only of value to the individual as a major determinant of quality of life, well-being and social participation, but it also contributes to general social and economic growth. Good health is a key aspect of people’s well-being and enhances opportunities to participate in the labour market and to benefit from economic and employment growth. People with poor physical or mental health are less likely to work and more likely to be unemployed than people in better health. The relationship also works the other way around: people with higher level of education and higher income tend to be in better health and live longer than those with lower level of education and income (OECD, 2015).
Elena Kuzmenko, Luboš Smutka, Wadim Strielkowski, Justas Štreimikis, Dalia Štreimikienė
In general, sugar markets are among the fastest developing markets in the world (Huang & Xiong, 2020). The significant global market liberalization resulted in the fast growth of supply and stocks (Zuckerindustrie, 2018). At the same time, continuous changes in consumption patterns are affecting the global demand for sugar and sugar products (Muhammad et al., 2019). On the other hand, global sugar market is still influenced by the existing protectionists measures (see Solomon, 2014). It is of note that protectionist policies are applied in sugar markets by both developed and developing countries (Haley, 2016). Eventually, global sugar market appears to be suffering because of high-applied tariffs, limited tariff quotas and production subsidies (da Costa et al., 2015). As a result, this is reflected in price transmission and significant sugar price differences existing among individual regions in the world. Another specific feature of global sugar market is its notable price fluctuation which is a result of speculative trade activities.
Nicolae Istudor, Vasile Dinu, Emilia Gogu, Elena-Maria Prada, Irina-Elena Petrescu
The migration phenomenon is complex and difficult to fully understand and summarize. From the perspective of human migration there are numerous studies that have tried to systematize the reasons of migration (Parkins, 2011; Faist, 2011; O’Reilly, 2013; Wickramasinghe & Wimalaratana, 2016). One of the main components of migration is labour migration. Most studies have dedicated an important part of literature to labour migration and many of the migrationist theories have revolved around this aspect: neo-classical theory, New Economics of Labour Migration (also known as NELM), Dual Labour Market Theory (Wickramasinghe & Wimalaratana, 2016). This paper explores the determinants of migration from the perspective of the sustainable development goals (SDG’s) that are related to education, decent work and economic growth.
Wojciech Grabowski, Karol Korczak
Due to the low level of quality of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) data set, studies devoted to matching the LFS data with data from alternative sources are frequent. In this paper, we propose a novel method of complementing data gaps on wages in the Labour Force Survey data set. The method is based on estimataing the parameters of the multilevel model explaining wages on the basis of the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) data set. In such a way, we identify the impact of individual characteristics and enterprise-level features on wages. We also find evidence of random differences between the wages of workers from different professional groups. The relative importance of consecutive groups of variables is evaluated on the basis of the estimates of the parameters of the full model and reduced models. The results of the estimation of the parameters are in line with expectations. The estimates of parameters and predictions of random effects are used in order to calculate the theoretical wages of individuals who do not report wages in the Labour Force Survey. When the predicted wages are compared with the observed ones, some discrepancies are observed. Rationales for these discrepancies are provided. Therefore, the use of a correction factor is proposed. Correction factors are provided for different features of workers and different features of enterprises. The use of the microeconometric multilevel model, as well as the correction factor, leads to reasonable wage estimates of workers not reporting them in the Labour Force Survey. The proposed method may be used in order to complement data gaps on wages for other EU countries.
Irena Benešová, Luboš Smutka, Jana Hinke, Adriana Laputková
The paper is an analysis of foreign trade of the post-Soviet countries conducted for years 2000 and 2015. The aims of the research were thus twofold: to examine the bilateral trade scheme for the selected countries and to attempt to explore relations between competitiveness and thus the position of the agricultural commodity aggregates. The UN COMTRADE database was used. In the monitored countries, there is continuous growth of the commodity aggregate 0 – Food and live animals, which is strongly influenced by the commodity sub-aggregates 02 – Dairy products and bird eggs, S3-04 – Cereals and cereal preparations. The first phase entailed calculations of individual indicators of mutual trade (RCA, LFI, GLI and coverage of import). Subsequently, the indicators were used as input variables for further analyses. Using RCA and LFI indexes, the commodity aggregates were classified into 4 quadrants according to their position within the comparative advantage and competitiveness. Using a cluster analysis (based on Euclidian distance and Ward’s method), individual commodity aggregates for the monitored countries were divided into groups based on the values of GLI, LFI and coverage of import. The groups were subsequently characterized for individual countries. Based on the conducted analyses, it can be stated that hypothesis 0 about the non-existence of significant changes within the group structure does not reflect the reality. Between 2000 and 2015, substantial changes occurred in terms of dividing the commodity aggregates into groups based on their common characteristics with regard to foreign trade. In addition, the diversity within foreign trade decreased between 2000 and 2015, and more commodity aggregates attain values around or below the average of a given aggregate. When assessing the intraindustry trade, it can be stated that some commodity aggregates can be regarded as important only with regard to Azerbaijan, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. In these countries, this phenomenon is most frequently evident in the commodity aggregates Beverages or Vegetables and fruit.