Kristína Kočišová, Małgorzata Cygańska, Magdalena Kludacz-Alessandri
Leading cause of death in Europe and worldwide are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). According to AstraZeneca (2014), they are estimated to account for 31% of all global deaths, 47% of all deaths in Europe and 40% of all deaths in the European Union (EU). The economic costs to societies of cardiovascular problems are enormous, including sick leave and lost employment, reduced efficiency at work and premature mortality. Patients with CVD cost the EU economy around 210 billion EUR per year. As mentioned by Wilkins et al. (2017), funding for CVDs as a proportion of the total health budget in the EU is estimated to account for 8%, and it ranges from around 19% in Hungary to around 3% in other countries like Denmark, Sweden and Ireland. Around 53% of the total cost is due to direct healthcare costs, 26% to productivity losses and 21% to the informal care of people with CVD. The relatively significant burden of cardiovascular diseases and a high level of resources allocated to healthcare delivery for CVD patients makes the performance in this health area very critical important issue.
Pedro Fontoura, Arnaldo Coelho
Sustainability is a theme that has gained interest among researchers and practitioners due to the increase of stakeholder awareness regarding environmental and social issues. In this context, the purchasing power of a company may turn out to be an important booster to bring positive changes to society. Corporations have to use this power to accomplish a goal and turn their supply chain in a driver for inclusive growth (Szegedi & Kerekes, 2012). Consequently, businesses have become conscious of the requirement of developing strategies, which can spread their usual corporate governance methods beyond the company’s borderline to their supply chain partners. According to Keating, Quazi and Kriz (2007), the appearance of purchasing approaches in favour of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the most noticeable display of this extension.
Ahmet Hakan Ozkan, Meral Elci, Melisa Erdilek Karabay, Hakan Kitapci, Cinar Garip
In mature markets such as the markets of the United States, the organizations aim to form the best teams to be more effective in a competitive environment. But turnover is a threat to effective organizations. It is also an extra cost for the institutions. Therefore the managers try to keep turnover under control. But it is a challenging task because there is a lot of variables that influence turnover intention. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and empowerment are chosen as the main antecedents of turnover intention. Meta-analysis studies showed that organizational commitment and job satisfaction are the strongest predictors of turnover intention (Tett & Meyer, 1993; Choi & Kim, 2016; Coomber & Barriball, 2006; Kim & Kao, 2014). Tett and Meyer (1993) reported that job satisfaction and turnover intention had the highest negative correlation among the other factors affecting turnover intention. The metaanalysis study of Pagilagan (2017) accepted organizational commitment and empowerment as the main antecedents of turnover intention.
Vítězslav Hálek, Anna Borkovcová, František Hašek
In a global environment, where a major part of a business operates in an international environment, financial indicators seem insufficient, especially because they are historical indicators; they are unstable and do not reflect future developments. The instability in the environment of competition urges businesses to introduce a strategy focusing on the critical areas and factors that have impact on the business survival in the long term (He & Lu, 2018; Peršić, Janković, & Krivačić, 2017). Measuring the performance of companies must be based not only on the financial indicators but increasingly also on the non-financial ones. The financial indicators are best suited for use in strategic management, where they indicate whether the implemented stratégy helps to improve. The non-financial indicators determine the short-term direction of the organization and their identification is usually quite complex and sometimes subjective. The non-financial indicators are usually determined based on the experience and knowledge of the managers of the company (Režňáková, Karas, & Strnadová, 2017).
In several economies, tourism is the key field representing an engine of economic growth. This field is employing directly or indirectly a big part of the economically active population. Above that, tourism belongs to the services, which bring an added value itself. A recent global financial crisis, which negatively reflected a real economy development ten years ago, unfortunately, influenced tourism, too. Even if the role of a central bank is very distant from tourism, a consequent unconventional monetary policy within the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone undoubtedly influenced it as well (Heryán, 2017). Rather than macroeconomy and turbulent development in financial markets, which can relate to tourism in very different ways, it is more contributive to deal with a microeconomic aspect of company internal processes of hotels and travel agencies (Heryán, 2018).