Izabela Kudelska, Rafał Niedbał
In their response to the necessity to meet the demands of customers, the enterprises are forced to reduce the time of order delivery. Today, almost every enterprise has its own warehouse facilities or outsources warehouse processes. Therefore, the contemporary warehouses play a significant role in production and service networks. The maintenance of high efficiency of warehouse processes determines the competitive functioning of enterprises. Continuous progress in this area sets the pace for these changes. Nevertheless, despite of the desire to reduce costs while increasing the efficiency of the warehouse process, you cannot forget about employees. In addition to efficiency and the level of generated costs, a warehouse employee is one of the factors that not only affects the shape of the logistics system in an enterprise, but also affects all links in the supply chain. This study is intended to research the impact of technological and organizational innovation implemented in the warehousing process on the efficiency of picking processes and staff workload on picking stations. The research was performed with warehouse simulation models developed in FlexSlim 3D Simulation Software. The simulated warehouses represent the warehouses in B2C (Business to Customer) logistics. They are about the layout of bag-type warehouse and the size and shape of the assortment varies. The size of storage zone is the same for all three warehouses. In these warehouses the assortment is arranged randomly. For each model, several simulations have been performed. The conducted research has shown that the results of technological and organizational innovation implemented in the warehousing process should be in general evaluated positively. Both the warehouse productivity and the picking process efficiency increased. The staff workload decreased, which is reflected in greater work comfort for a man and which supports implementation of control activities. However, it should be noted that implementation of the technological and organizational innovation in the warehousing processes adopted in various enterprises changes the labor market, thus it is possible that some problems with maintaining current employment levels will occur.
Katarína Valášková, Beáta Gavurová, Pavol Ďurana, Mária Kováčová
The paper studies a new point of view and the approach to profit as an inherent part of business finance as well as a symbol of every healthy economy. The fundamental function of the profit is a stimulus; it means initial motivator of the business activity. The profit provides core resources for survival at the business start and after the stabilization, it is the synonym for progress. The aim of this paper is to detect significant change-points in times series of EBITDA during the analysed period in every country of the Visegrad Group to recognize the progress years in the monotonic development. We use a method of homogeneity test of time series that delivers significant robust results. We observe the variable EBITDA to eliminate different tax, interest and depreciation policies of these emerging countries. The original research of this article is based on empirical results of business profits of the sample of 3,853 enterprises covered by the broad theoretical review. Firstly, we identify missing values; and detect the outliers by Z-score and Grubbs test. EBITDA of 1,058 Slovak enterprises, 688 Czech enterprises, 1,376 Polish enterprises and 731 Hungarian enterprises is analysed during the period from 2010 to 2018. We eliminate the inconsistent observations and construct average values of EBITDA. Secondly, we prove normality by Jarque-Bera test, and support it by Shapiro-Wilk test, Anderson-Darling test, Lilliefors test to deliver reliable results. Thirdly, we find an independency of distribution that confirm randomness by the Box-Pierce test. And finally, we identify the years that affect heterogeneity of EBITDA in the countries of the Visegrad Four. We uncover some really surprising results. For all countries in the Visegrad Four, the year 2013 is detected as a change-point at a significance level of 0.05. This significant year shifts EBITDA between two homogeneous series with corresponding central lines and recognizes the similar annual development within the groups. In addition, we discuss the results to the areas and factors affecting the business risk. The adjustable area represented by the business dynamism has no significant impact on the development of EBITDA. The uncontrollable macroeconomic factors such as a GDP, unemployment rate, inflation rate, average monthly gross wage, and Ease of doing business index demonstrate the same development of Slovak, Czech, Polish and Hungarian enterprises. We connect our gained results to the undisputed influence of these factors and its derived components on monotonic development of EBITDA. Despite the fact, that the countries are not economically interconnected as they used to be in the past, in has to be underlined that their mutual relations are still very narrow and close and that might be the reason, why identical results are achieved in the countries with divergent development.
Krzysztof Łobos, Vojtěch Malátek, Mirosława Szewczyk
Towards the end of the 1980s, all the countries of the former socialist bloc had to wrestle with structural and systemic problems. At the moment of entering the period of transformations, Poland and Czechoslovakia were characterized by different conditions, among others, GDP per capita, the range of macroeconomic imbalance, inflation rate, indebtedness, or the share of the private sector. In Poland, private ownership dominated in agriculture, while in trade and service its share was significant. On the other hand, as regards Czechoslovakia, private ownership was scarce. The 1990s saw far-reaching systemic changes going on both in Poland and Czechoslovakia (and following the split of the latter – the Czech Republic). Privatization of enterprises was the fundamental part of the economic reforms program implemented in both countries. The introduction of free market principles, the influx of foreign investment and restructuring actions, undoubtedly influenced the change in the way enterprises functioned in the market. At present, small and mediumsized enterprises are of the key importance to the economic development of Poland and the Czech Republic.
Stanislav Szabo, Bohuslava Mihalčová, Jozef Lukáč, Peter Gallo, Veronika Čabinová, Iveta Vajdová
In the context of the research on human behaviour, the issue we deal with is the reason why a people’s message is precisely that, and not another one, what forces them to act as they do. Is it an external compulsion – e.g. to escape from danger, or that they want to achieve something – to satisfy some of their needs, interests in hobbies, or because they consider it right and moral? Can a person behave in a way that has no cause, or reason? Although we distinguish between involuntary and voluntary behaviour, human behaviour in the work process is largely influenced by the will, the desire that results from the impact of several motives. The concept of motivation is the internal process, the process of psychological causes of human behaviour. These causes are motives, internal presuppositions, and internal impulses leading to certain target behaviour. The process of motivation is thus the process of activating internal assumptions, guiding human action to a certain goal of their pursuit (Nakonečný, 1992). Motivation can be defined as processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal (Robbins, 2001).
Kristína Kočišová, Małgorzata Cygańska, Magdalena Kludacz-Alessandri
Leading cause of death in Europe and worldwide are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). According to AstraZeneca (2014), they are estimated to account for 31% of all global deaths, 47% of all deaths in Europe and 40% of all deaths in the European Union (EU). The economic costs to societies of cardiovascular problems are enormous, including sick leave and lost employment, reduced efficiency at work and premature mortality. Patients with CVD cost the EU economy around 210 billion EUR per year. As mentioned by Wilkins et al. (2017), funding for CVDs as a proportion of the total health budget in the EU is estimated to account for 8%, and it ranges from around 19% in Hungary to around 3% in other countries like Denmark, Sweden and Ireland. Around 53% of the total cost is due to direct healthcare costs, 26% to productivity losses and 21% to the informal care of people with CVD. The relatively significant burden of cardiovascular diseases and a high level of resources allocated to healthcare delivery for CVD patients makes the performance in this health area very critical important issue.