Krzysztof Łobos, Vojtěch Malátek, Mirosława Szewczyk
Towards the end of the 1980s, all the countries of the former socialist bloc had to wrestle with structural and systemic problems. At the moment of entering the period of transformations, Poland and Czechoslovakia were characterized by different conditions, among others, GDP per capita, the range of macroeconomic imbalance, inflation rate, indebtedness, or the share of the private sector. In Poland, private ownership dominated in agriculture, while in trade and service its share was significant. On the other hand, as regards Czechoslovakia, private ownership was scarce. The 1990s saw far-reaching systemic changes going on both in Poland and Czechoslovakia (and following the split of the latter – the Czech Republic). Privatization of enterprises was the fundamental part of the economic reforms program implemented in both countries. The introduction of free market principles, the influx of foreign investment and restructuring actions, undoubtedly influenced the change in the way enterprises functioned in the market. At present, small and mediumsized enterprises are of the key importance to the economic development of Poland and the Czech Republic.
Stanislav Szabo, Bohuslava Mihalčová, Jozef Lukáč, Peter Gallo, Veronika Čabinová, Iveta Vajdová
In the context of the research on human behaviour, the issue we deal with is the reason why a people’s message is precisely that, and not another one, what forces them to act as they do. Is it an external compulsion – e.g. to escape from danger, or that they want to achieve something – to satisfy some of their needs, interests in hobbies, or because they consider it right and moral? Can a person behave in a way that has no cause, or reason? Although we distinguish between involuntary and voluntary behaviour, human behaviour in the work process is largely influenced by the will, the desire that results from the impact of several motives. The concept of motivation is the internal process, the process of psychological causes of human behaviour. These causes are motives, internal presuppositions, and internal impulses leading to certain target behaviour. The process of motivation is thus the process of activating internal assumptions, guiding human action to a certain goal of their pursuit (Nakonečný, 1992). Motivation can be defined as processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal (Robbins, 2001).
Kristína Kočišová, Małgorzata Cygańska, Magdalena Kludacz-Alessandri
Leading cause of death in Europe and worldwide are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). According to AstraZeneca (2014), they are estimated to account for 31% of all global deaths, 47% of all deaths in Europe and 40% of all deaths in the European Union (EU). The economic costs to societies of cardiovascular problems are enormous, including sick leave and lost employment, reduced efficiency at work and premature mortality. Patients with CVD cost the EU economy around 210 billion EUR per year. As mentioned by Wilkins et al. (2017), funding for CVDs as a proportion of the total health budget in the EU is estimated to account for 8%, and it ranges from around 19% in Hungary to around 3% in other countries like Denmark, Sweden and Ireland. Around 53% of the total cost is due to direct healthcare costs, 26% to productivity losses and 21% to the informal care of people with CVD. The relatively significant burden of cardiovascular diseases and a high level of resources allocated to healthcare delivery for CVD patients makes the performance in this health area very critical important issue.