Bogdan Włodarczyk, Ireneusz Miciuła
Risk management is one of the most dynamically developed areas in economic sciences. One of the main driving forces for this development has been the practical challenge resulting from increasing financial risk. Risk management is a process in which key role is played by risk measurement (Jajuga, 2016). Comparison of various forecasting models and selection of the best ones for particular markets is of key importance in many fields of economics and finance. Theoretic aspects concerning commodity markets very often concentrate on relations between changes in commodity prices and on the news impact on rates of return. However, up until now studies concerning conditional volatility of returns on commodity markets and market risk have been less comprehensive than those concerning conditions affecting prices and rates of return. Nevertheless, studies concerning market volatility are becoming increasingly popular due to the growth of market volatility itself and
the significance of commodities as investment assets (Kang, 2013; Thuraisamy, 2013; Vivian, 2012). The growing interest also results from the fact that commodity rates of return have some empirically verifiable features such as non-normal distribution, asymmetry, structural breaks and fat tails (Aloui, 2010; Cheng, 2011).
Pengshi Li, Wei Li, Haidong Chen
The collar option is one kind of exotic options which is useful when institutional investors wish to lock in the profit they already have on the underlying asset. Collar options can be implemented by investors on the stock they have already own. Usually investors will obtain the collar when they have enjoyed a decent gain on their investment but they want to hedge against potential downside in their shares. Collar options are very useful and practical instruments in revenue management and project management. Shan et al. (2010) study the use of collar options to manage revenue risks in real toll public-private partnership transportation projects, in particular how to redistribute the profit and losses in order to improve the effectiveness of risk management and fulfill the stakeholder’s needs. Under the constant volatility assumption, the pricing problem of collar option can be solved in the classical Black Scholes framework. However, the smile-shaped pattern of the Black Scholes implied volatilities which extracted from options has provided evidence against the constant volatility assumption in the Black Scholes model.
Gentjan Çera, Quyen Phu Thi Phan, Armenia Androniceanu, Edmond Çera
The Internet plays a vital role in our daily life in that people can easily access our world and open international borders. Meanwhile, online shopping has been widely accepted as a way of purchasing products and services. It provides a dominant alternative to traditional retail shopping. Consumers can search for more information and select to compare product and price, more options, convenience. Online shopping offers more satisfaction to consumers save time (Katawetawaraks & Wang, 2011). However, the investigation of online consumer behaviour is relatively underdeveloped (Smith et al., 2013). Although online shopping behaviour is not a new topic, the unanswered question that what determines consumers’ willingness to purchase a product online have attracted many researchers. In this line of study, researchers identified factors influencing on purchase behaviour of the consumer based on Theory Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989), Stimulus–Organism–Response (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). The first approach focused on the direct impact on consumer behaviour. For example, Wu and Ke (2015) integrated a model of personality traits, perceived risk and technology acceptance in online shopping behaviour.
Željko Vojinović, Sunčica Milutinović, Bojan Leković
Risks, as the opportunity-threat combinations, are the ubiquitous factors of the modern business and life. As we transfer a portion of risks to the insurance companies, so they retransfer a fraction of risks to other insurers through reinsurance arrangements. These transfers produce both revenues and costs, and that is why profitability analysis is at the core of both performance management and supervisory treatment. It is worth noting the macroeconomic importance of the insurance industry too, since the insurance industry continues to grow, becoming an important part of the financial sector that contributes significantly to economic growth (Haiss & Sümegi, 2008). On the contrary, the insurance market instability (liquidity crises, massive losses, etc.) can trigger financial sector disturbances and negative spillover effects, so that the insurance industry requires a kind of special supervisory treatment (Das, Davies, & Podpiera, 2003). So, the importance of the study comes from the multidimensional importance of the insurance industry, focusing the firm-specific factors affecting profitability of the Serbian insurance sector.
Veronika Konečná, Alena Andrejovská
In the search for an analytical framework for financing and investment location, that is important to follow the tax tracts, which significantly contribute to the important decision of foreign investors. Corporate taxation is an important element of the tax system of European countries and the one of key factors that influence investors of companies in managing and deciding on the location of their investments and business activities. In terms of economic efficiency, tax systems should ideally be “neutral”, particularly as regards economic decisions. From this perspective, the location of investments in different countries in the international context should not face markedly different effect levels of taxation. The first and important dimension is a statutory tax rate, which is determined by the tax laws. It is the simplest and most affordable way to obtain tax information in country, but it is definitely not decisive. According to Bayer (2011), Gupta, (2007) Clausing (2007) and Mura (2019) it is important to monitor the overall tax burden that represents the size of the enterprise’s tax. In other words, it is important to monitor the proportion of taxes paid on the total income or profit of an enterprise in that country.