the profitability of their company’s investments. They also encounter various types of costs – from the managerial perspective, these include paid taxes. Therefore, the management at multinational corporations takes advantage of the global digital economy and tries to plan tax liabilities in order to minimize them. Ignoring the opportunity to avoid taxes can result in a less competitive position. Tax planning has become an important tool for achieving better financial results. Within the global economy, the international aspect of tax planning is a key factor for multinational corporation management. The importance of tax burdens can also be seen in decision making on where to invest. Lower tax burdens can increase an investment’s profitability; therefore, managers incorporate rating tax legislation into their decision-making process for investment.
Patrick O. Eke, Kehinde A Adetiloye, Esther O Adegbite
The debate on development of the bond market as major channel of industrial finance is gaining traction in many African economies. The secondary arm of the market, aside from the liquidity window it provides for investors in the primary market, additionally creates information linkage by fostering capital formation for prospective investors and producers that require capital to meet their investment opportunities, assisting in the allocation and operational efficiency of the capital market. Except if the market remains thin, overtime, liquidity in the market becomes more visible in the economy’s financial architecture, as it ignites market dynamism in the financial services linkage with other sectors of the economy. Liquidity is a pre-requisite to deepening the bond market, conditioned on information availability to ease asset valuation. The rapidity and randomness of information is what actually distinguishes capital market functionality and efficiency (Wijst, 2013).
Silvo Dajčman, Alenka Kavkler, Peter Mikek, Dejan Romih
After the global financial crisis and the Great Recession, a large and growing body of literature has examined real business-financial cycle linkages. To this end, Claessens et al. (2012) examined a large database of business and financial stress periods, corroborating that financial crisis periods are often longer and deeper than economic recessions and tend to amplify and prolong the latter. Our research aims to contribute to an understanding of the financial stress-macroeconomy nexus by studying the spillovers of US (euro area) financial stress shocks and their macroeconomic effects (i.e. effects on industrial production, inflation and unemployment) into the euro area (USA). This paper asks whether these effects are contingent on the phase of the business cycle. Traditionally, domestic and international financial stress-business cycle linkages have been investigated within the linear modelling framework.
Once entering the European Union, the Czech Republic as well as at present six other countries which are not currently members of the EMU committed to accept common currency – the euro. For example, Sweden accessed in 1995, the Czech Republic in 2004 and these two countries are still using their national currencies. By coincidence, these two countries use for payments their crowns – Czech koruna, respectively Swedish kronor. What is more, in case of these two countries, a date of EMU accession has not been set yet. In fact, due to several major unfortunately rather negative, economic events that have taken place over the last decade (i.e. financial crisis, debt crisis), and due to several ongoing economic problems of the Eurozone (e.g. significant public debt burden for Greece or Italy; the budgetary problems of Italy and, to some extent, France; esponsibility for indebtedness of national economies, etc), the relevant EU institutions do not even put pressure on countries still using their national currencies in order to fulfil the commitment of euro adoption.
The performance of the economy should generally reflect the performance of stock markets. Production increases, prices rise, and companies’ profits increase if the economy grows. And the shares should naturally make the profits (which means among other things, higher dividends) even more attractive. But is that really true? The aim of the article is to find out the relationship between the development of stock markets and the economic growth in Visegrad Group countries (V4). The subject of the survey is both the long-term relationship and the short-term relationship in the course of economic cycles. The article uses the tools of time series econometrics, especially VECMs, including corresponding diagnostics, Granger causality and block erogeneity. The relationships between the variables examined vary from country to country. The long-term relationship between the development of stock markets and the economic growth was confirmed in Slovakia and Hungary. It was confirmed that the GDP growth rate influenced the growth rate of stock indices in all V4 countries. The opposite relationship (the stock index growth rate influences the GDP growth rate) was not confirmed only in the Czech Republic. Quarterly data for the period from 2005/Q1 to 2018/Q4 was used for the analysis. This period was selected because all of the V4 countries have been members of the European Union since 2004. The EViews software version 9 was used for the calculations. Variables used in this research are: the GDP, the stock Exchange index of the country and stock trading volume. The PX, SAX, BUX and WIG20 stock indices are considered to be the crucial representatives of individual stock markets in this work.