Željko Vojinović, Sunčica Milutinović, Bojan Leković
Risks, as the opportunity-threat combinations, are the ubiquitous factors of the modern business and life. As we transfer a portion of risks to the insurance companies, so they retransfer a fraction of risks to other insurers through reinsurance arrangements. These transfers produce both revenues and costs, and that is why profitability analysis is at the core of both performance management and supervisory treatment. It is worth noting the macroeconomic importance of the insurance industry too, since the insurance industry continues to grow, becoming an important part of the financial sector that contributes significantly to economic growth (Haiss & Sümegi, 2008). On the contrary, the insurance market instability (liquidity crises, massive losses, etc.) can trigger financial sector disturbances and negative spillover effects, so that the insurance industry requires a kind of special supervisory treatment (Das, Davies, & Podpiera, 2003). So, the importance of the study comes from the multidimensional importance of the insurance industry, focusing the firm-specific factors affecting profitability of the Serbian insurance sector.
Veronika Konečná, Alena Andrejovská
In the search for an analytical framework for financing and investment location, that is important to follow the tax tracts, which significantly contribute to the important decision of foreign investors. Corporate taxation is an important element of the tax system of European countries and the one of key factors that influence investors of companies in managing and deciding on the location of their investments and business activities. In terms of economic efficiency, tax systems should ideally be “neutral”, particularly as regards economic decisions. From this perspective, the location of investments in different countries in the international context should not face markedly different effect levels of taxation. The first and important dimension is a statutory tax rate, which is determined by the tax laws. It is the simplest and most affordable way to obtain tax information in country, but it is definitely not decisive. According to Bayer (2011), Gupta, (2007) Clausing (2007) and Mura (2019) it is important to monitor the overall tax burden that represents the size of the enterprise’s tax. In other words, it is important to monitor the proportion of taxes paid on the total income or profit of an enterprise in that country.
Peter Pisár, Ina Ďurčeková, Mária Stachová
Many authors consider innovation to be the key element of economic growth and competitiveness of firms (Distanont & Khongmalai, 2018; Kuncoro & Suriani, 2018) and countries (Akis, 2015; Ciocanel & Pavalesce, 2015; Akcali & Sismanoglu, 2015; Krstić, Stanišić, & Radivojević, 2016; Şener & Saridoğan, 2011). Even though research and development (furthermore just “R&D”) and innovation are not the same thing, R&D is a crucial part of innovation (Edquist, 2006). The importance of R&D is shown in the fact that one of the main priorities of the EU strategy “Europe 2020” is the increase of R&D expenditure in the EU member states (European Commission, 2010). However, we maintain that it is not only important to monitor R&D expenditure as one aggregate indicator, but to also look at it incrementally from the point of involvement of various innovation actors in R&D funding. Since firms are considered to be the key Innovation actor (Eggink, 2013), we decided to examine the financing of business R&D from various sources of funds (business, government, university, non-profit organization funds and funds from abroad).
Exotic options are called “customer tailored options” or “special purpose option” because they are flexible to be tailored to the specific needs of investors. Strategies based on exotic options are often employed to hedge the specific risk exposures from the financial markets. Because exotic options are more efficient and less expensive than their standard counterparts, they are playing a significant hedging role in cost effective ways. Unlike the vanilla call and put options, exotic options are either variation on the payoff patterns of plain vanilla options or they are totally different kinds of derivatives with other features. While simple vanilla call and put options are traded in the exchanges, most of the exotic options are traded in the over-the-counter markets.
Supershare option and chooser option are two typical kinds of exotic options which suggest a broad range of usage and application in different financial market conditions. Supershare option is one type of Binary option. Unlike the binary option which has only one boundary, a supershare option has an upper and lower boundary.
As a consequence of political changes, the process of transitioning a centrally controlled economy to a market economy has influenced the development processes of the states in which this transformation has occurred
(Hlaváček & Bal-Domanska, 2016). It was expected that the entry of foreign investors would bring an inflow of capital, new investment, export potential, and technological transfer (Estrin et al., 2009; Rapacki & Prochniak, 2009). Foreign direct investment (FDI) is generally considered to be the contribution of holders of know-how, technology, new management methods and skills, initiators of innovation activities, strategic employers, and exporters. FDI can lead to economic growth, changes in the business or institutional environment, restructuring of the economy and, ideally, also to the increase of labour productivity in the host region and the improvement of macroeconomic indicators (Damborský, 2013). Moreover, for transition economies, FDI is the key indicator
for evaluating their economic transformation (Starzyczná, 2010). FDI in the Czech Republic, and in transition economies in general, is regarded as a crucial criterion for a successful economic transformation (Hlaváček & Bal-Domanska, 2016).