Martin Boďa, Emília Zimková
Several factors may be earmarked as vital to smooth and successful working of a developed economy; and one of these factors is the financial system, which provides valuable services to the economy and its stability is always deemed imperative to the stability of the entire economy (e.g. Beck et al., 2014, p. 1-2). This laudatory statement is by no manner diminished by the fact that there is – at it happens – a scattered mosaic of opposing opinions to what extent a sound financial system is actually important to economic growth (Levine, 1997; Thiel, 2001). The key function of the financial system in an economy is “to channel savings to investment” (Thiel, 2001, p. 7), or – putting it differently – to connect agents with surplus funds to those who are in deficit, which are merely two different ways to describe the essence of financial intermediation. The definition is suggestive that financial intermediation should be assessed by comparing how surplus funds are matched against deficit needs.
Nabiela Noaman, Hassan Ouda, Johan Christiaens
The way ‘Heritage Assets’ are preserved is a symbol of a country’s civilization (Shan, 2006). Heritage assets (HA) are of utmost signiﬁcance to shaping nations’ identities. Their signiﬁcance is derived from their historical, aesthetic, scientiﬁc and social values. They should be well preserved to continue offering social beneﬁts for an indeﬁnite period (Barton, 2005). Countries possessing rich legacies of HA should manage them properly to evade negligence and loss of such irreplaceable possessions. Thus, governments are responsible for safeguarding HA and ensuring their retention for future generations.
Lenka Maličká, Slavomíra Martinková
In industrial and developed countries, the restructuring of public sector increased the importance of ﬁscal decentralization in the second half of 20th century. In Eastern Europe its implementation delayed to the 1990´s. The decentralization of decision-making powers was supported by the ﬁscal federalism theory in the 1950´s and 1960´s (Oates, 2005) developed by Samuelson (1954; 1955), Tiebout (1956), Musgrave (1959). In this period many famous authors as Olson, Buchanan, etc. published their ideas in the ﬁeld of collective action (Zabkowicz, 2017). Famous is also the decentralization theorem formalized by Oates (1972) and the Leviathan hypothesis elaborated by Brennan and Buchanan (1980).
Elżbieta Wrońska-Bukalska, Bogna Kaźmierska-Jóźwiak, Jiří Rozkovec
Share repurchase is a phenomenon that has recently been thoroughly studied around the world. Despite being seen as a substitution for dividends and a tool for distributing excess cash, it would appear that there are more reasons for repurchasing shares and more complex problems than only distributing excess cash to shareholders. The bulk of the research concerns the market reaction to the announcement and implementation of share repurchase programmes. We attempt to ascertain the market reaction to the announcement of share repurchases and to determine the reasons for the reaction. We assume that share repurchase programmes might be explained by the agency theory or signalling theory. We expect that share repurchases convey valuable information to the investors because of the separation of ownership and management. We seek to identify what kind of information the share repurchase conveys.
Václav Klepáč, David Hampel
The best defense against existential problems of a company appears to be good ﬁnancial health, based on a satisfactory ﬁnancial situation. If, however, considerably weakened, the company gets into ﬁnancial distress, which may turn into a ﬁnancial crisis and end up in bankruptcy. The primary means, by which we would be informed about the condition of the enterprise, are bookkeeping data of a company. From there, based on ﬁnancial analysis, we can identify scenarios leading to good management decisions and, consequently, to the ﬁnancial health of the company.