Ludvík Eger, Michal Mičík, Petr Řehoř
With some regional differences, employment levels in many developed economies are very high, and competition for skilled staff is intense. Competitive labour markets aside, competition for employees is likely to become an increasingly important issue as the population worldwide ages (Wilden, Gudergan, & Lings, 2010). Employer branding has gained favour as a management tool over the last decade. Even as ﬁrms face global economic conditions that are both difﬁcult to forecast and subject to extreme variance, the need to attract, retain and motivate staff remains (Moroko & Uncles, 2009).
Dan-Cristian Dabija, Brîndușa Mariana Bejan, Nicoleta Tipi
The success of 21st century retailers depends increasingly on their online presence and the development of interesting and attractive communication and presentation of offers to internauts who spend a lot of time on social media interacting with people, catching up on the latest news, commenting on various events and situations and sharing other people’s posts (Young, 2015; Dabija et al., 2018).
In the past, companies attempted to address customers using marketing communication tools such as television ads and public relations. A major disadvantage of these tools is the passive way in which customers receive information on products and brands (Hennig- Thurau et al., 2010; Libai et al., 2010). In recent years there has been steady growth in the share of two-way communication, which has resulted in a revolutionary change in the role of the customer from passive to active. This change was brought about in particular by the internet boom and the emergence of social media (Ungerman, 2016).
Estrella Díaz, Mar Gómez, David Martín-Consuegra, Arturo Molina
Innovation and the adoption of new business practices related to customer satisfaction are essential to improve social performance and sustainability, speciﬁcally in the tourism sector. While some tourism companies have developed new work strategies, it is difﬁcult to consider issues such as quality certiﬁcation, environmental policies, human resource training, or customer service norms, among other aspects. For example, in the case of hotels and restaurants, improved sustainability policies have been promoted through regulations and special actions (such as the ITQ 2000 ® RS norm), which generate more effective approaches to planning, innovation and customers and stakeholder relations (Buckley, 2012).
Hana Kunešová, Ludvík Eger
Electronic commerce (e-commerce), as part of e-business, is still undergoing dynamic development and signiﬁcantly affects the economic reality in EU member states. E-commerce relates to the development of information and communications technologies (ICT). It has gone through development stages (detailed below), and since 2010 (Schneider, 2015) has been in its current maturity stage in developed countries and the European Union (EU) (Qin et al., 2014, according to whom the maturity stage of e-commerce dates back to 2004).