Kristína Pompurová, Radka Marčeková
The development and innovations of technology has paved the way for the expanding growth of an innovative form of commerce based on a principle of shared access of assets or resources rather than private ownership (Basukie et al., 2020). Although to date, there has been no agreement on the naming or definition of this socio-economic phenomenon (Martínez-González et al., 2021), it has quickly changed consumers’ preferences and inclinations. People around the world embark on digital interaction and temporarily Exchange their under-utilized possessions, resources, time and skills, facilitated through internet platforms (Leoni & Parker, 2019). According to the European Commission (2018), the size of this new economy relative to the total EU economy was estimated to be 26.5 billion EUR in 2016, offering about 394,000 jobs across the EU.
Andrzej Rapacz, Piotr Gryszel, Marek Walesiak, Andrzej Dudek
The interaction of two phenomena is observed in well-developed countries, i.e. the growing importance of the service sector (transition to the service economy or the post-industrial society) and the increasing importance of knowledge, manifested in the creation of innovations (knowledge-based economy). We live in an era when the skills of acquiring and processing information as well as creating innovations remain the key factor responsible for the market success of businesses. As indicated by Škare and Tomić (2014), the market position of enterprises, their further development and prosperity largely depend on their opening towards innovations (Burns & Stalker, 1961; Weerawardena & Mavondo, 2011; Baily et al., 2006; Sandvik et al., 2014). The very idea of innovation was actually born in industry, however, the transition of the economic system to the one where services play a dominant or at least an equal role, resulted in the phenomenon of innovation spreading in
the service sector as well (Schumpeter, 1934; Swann, 2009; Hjalager, 2010).
Jaewon Choi, Hong Joo Lee, Joon Yeon Choeh
Social interactions such as user discussions, reviews, and replies on websites have become a major communication channel for customers to discuss their opinions on various topics (Appel et al., 2020). Social networking sites provide real-time communication and opportunity to connect to an unlimited number of friends at no extra cost. As a result, this enables consumers to share and discuss various opportunities in the market. Getting information about products across to potential customers is critical as their purchase decisions rely heavily on other customers’ opinions from social media (Park et al., 2007). As Simon (2019) pointed out, information systems have increased information flow between opinion leaders and the general public to the point of information overload. Thus, companies are tracking the perceptions of their products from customer reviews and social media to monitor their brand image (Cruz & Lee, 2014).
Miroslava Kostková, Pavlína Pellešová, Patrik Kajzar
Tourism is an economically important sector in the world. Demand in tourism is strongly influenced by global trends in leisure, IT technology, etc. Trends affecting the demand of tourists and visitors to tourist destinations due to changes in their preferences cause changes in the offer of tourist services. Identifying new trends, examining changes, and incorporating innovation present, therefore, an important task for tourism businesses. The introduction of new trends and innovations in the offer of accommodation and catering companies have significantly affected tourist destinations, as revenues from accommodation and catering services within the balance of payments of tourism in the Czech Republic account for more than half of its. The paper deals with the results of research, which was carried out in two phases in 2017 and 2020, within the institutional project ‘Tourism Trends in the Moravian Silesian Region’.
Bojana Vuković, Kristina Mijić, Dejan Jakšić, Dušan Saković
Cash is one of the key items in the balance sheet, since it is necessary for every transaction. Cash holdings provide the company with flexibility and the ability to meet its own needs, regardless of existing business conditions. It can be significant in terms of the company’s internal financing, thus it is crucial to maintain an optimal level of cash, given that external financing also entails certain costs. An optimal level of cash holdings represents available money to investors and should increase general business efficiency. Achieving an optimal level of cash holdings provides the company with autonomy to explore new opportunities as well as take risks. An insufficient level of cash creates the need for financing from external sources, which is reflected in reduced investments and decreased sale of available assets and securities. However, a large amount of cash enables the company to respond to market trends and take advantage of investment opportunities so as to secure the financial power of the company.
Khurram Ajaz Khan, Gentjan Çera, Sandra Raquel Pinto Alves
The capability theory is concerned with an individual’s ability and opportunity to act, which grants the freedom to live life as one pleases (Sen, 1993). Based upon this theory, financial capability relates to the ability and opportunity to act (Johnson & Sherraden, 2007). A more detail definition given by Brown (2020) that financial capability is classified as internally focused including knowledge, skills, and behaviour, and those that also acknowledge a person’s external context including systems and structures. Many scholars concur that the concept of financial capability is much broader than the idea of financial literacy (Johnson & Sherraden, 2007; Kempson et al., 2013; Shim et al., 2013; Taylor, 2011). Studies explain that financial capability is a broader term, and financial literacy is just a building block of financial capability. It also includes financial advice and financial inclusion (Johnson & Sherraden, 2007). According to Sen’s (1993) theory, financial capability comes from two sources: internal ability and, second, from external opportunity.
Anna Bartoszewicz, Anna Rutkowska-Ziarko
In recent years, non-financial reporting has become a global practice used by businesses almost all over the world. Its dynamic development can be also recently observed in Poland, which is reflected in the growing number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports published voluntarily by enterprises. Their scope includes non-financial results obtained within the environmental, social and economic area and informs about the risk associated with the initiatives undertaken by companies. Although the data contained in CSR reports are informative to stakeholders and are used in the decision-making process, there is a certain concern that they may lack reliability (compare with Dal Maso et al., 2020). It is not out of the question that companies, while promoting their activities, will disclose only selected, usually positive, aspects of their operations. Therefore, it appears reasonable to subject the disclosures presented in CSR reports to an audit, which, in this context, means an independent and objective verification of the non-financial information contained in the report, and their attestation (confirmation) in terms of reliability.
Investment incentives are a widely used tool of economic policy employed not only in the Czech Republic (CR) but also in other European economies. Given the ambiguous perception established by the review of the literature on investment incentives and the effects that supported investment brings to the economy, this article aims to evaluate the issue of investment incentives in the CR with the use of a time series regression analysis (1998–2019) in order to answer two main research questions: Do investment incentives attract investment into economically weaker regions? Do investments supported by incentives lead to the economic prosperity of these regions? The inspiration for the article comes from a comprehensive study focused on investment incentives in the CR (Schwarz et al., 2007). The experts’ views on investment incentives are ambiguous – some perceive them positively, others criticize them and consider them undesirable.
Niusha Eivazzadeh, Halil Nadiri
During recent decades, with the rise of worldwide competition and globalization, the noteworthiness of recruiting and retaining qualified employees has become an important factor in the success of the education industry (Gong et al., 2018). In other words, managing human resources plays a crucial role in increasing the sustainable competitive advantages of a higher education institute. Such a role is more profound in the education industry due to the direct effect of human resources, which consist of academics, on customers, who are students. Although recruiting highly talented academics is a challenging issue for human resource managers, retaining them within the organization, in the long term, requires high efforts and intention as well. It is quite clear that progress in science and technology improves the human being’s quality of life. Developing knowledge is the main purpose of the higher education system, which will be fulfilled by educating capable scientists. Academics and scholars are responsible for accomplishing this main goal of the higher education systém in universities. Iran is one of the countries which plays an active role in contributing to universal knowledge and technology (Naderi & Safarzade, 2014).
Ľuboš Elexa, Michal Ištok, Lea Šlampiaková
Tax havens are both a controversial and thrilling area of research. Since the last financial crisis there has been a dramatic increase of research interest in this area. The most frequently researched areas in relation to tax havens can be divided into positive: for example, attracting more foreign direct investments (FDI), or potentially increased financial performance and productivity, and negative: for example, aggressive tax planning, money laundering or
machinations in public procurements. The last decade’s research results suggest the value of a focus on negative outcomes: aggressive tax planning, related profit-shifting techniques, and the consequences of having anonymous ultimate beneficial owners (UBO). In the Slovak business environment, research on tax havens has been long neglected. In contrast to other jurisdictions, there are no academic studies that might inform improvements in tax legislation, or provide support for the Financial Administration of the Slovak Republic.