Romina Cheraghalizadeh, Jaroslava Dědková
The hotel industry has turned out to be one of the most competitive industries in the world. The competition among hotels forced them to increase the quality of services and improve the relationship with customers. Today business development is fast (Wijaya et al., 2021), and hotels require to deal with ongoing monitoring across a variety of service areas in order to improve the services at the best levels. The service quality is known as a fundamental determinant in differentiating service providers (Mey et al., 2006). It is an important element in customers’ initial decision-making, and their return intention. However, in today’s business world, hotels may face major challenges, such as frequent changes in customers’ preferences, and demands that are more complex. Therefore, there is room for this question of whether the perceived service quality is a sufficient stimulant to retain a relationship in a long term?
Ottó Bartók, Jana Matošková
E-commerce is one of the modern trends that is emerging in connection with the development of information technology. Turban et al. (2015) state that e-commerce is a form of business that uses an online environment, and the Internet is just a factor that connects the seller and the buyer. The fast growth of e-commerce in the last few years in most European countries (Eurostat, 2020) brings pressure on companies and the necessity for rapid responses to increasing customer requirements. The reason is simple. Many companies face challenges, such as high competition in some segments of e-commerce, gradual market saturation due to economic growth and development. The shopping behaviour of customers in the e-commerce environment is different from customer behaviour in the traditional setting due to remote access. For e-commerce customers, personalization of services and interactivity are vital (Bucko, 2018).
Kristína Pompurová, Radka Marčeková
The development and innovations of technology has paved the way for the expanding growth of an innovative form of commerce based on a principle of shared access of assets or resources rather than private ownership (Basukie et al., 2020). Although to date, there has been no agreement on the naming or definition of this socio-economic phenomenon (Martínez-González et al., 2021), it has quickly changed consumers’ preferences and inclinations. People around the world embark on digital interaction and temporarily Exchange their under-utilized possessions, resources, time and skills, facilitated through internet platforms (Leoni & Parker, 2019). According to the European Commission (2018), the size of this new economy relative to the total EU economy was estimated to be 26.5 billion EUR in 2016, offering about 394,000 jobs across the EU.
Andrzej Rapacz, Piotr Gryszel, Marek Walesiak, Andrzej Dudek
The interaction of two phenomena is observed in well-developed countries, i.e. the growing importance of the service sector (transition to the service economy or the post-industrial society) and the increasing importance of knowledge, manifested in the creation of innovations (knowledge-based economy). We live in an era when the skills of acquiring and processing information as well as creating innovations remain the key factor responsible for the market success of businesses. As indicated by Škare and Tomić (2014), the market position of enterprises, their further development and prosperity largely depend on their opening towards innovations (Burns & Stalker, 1961; Weerawardena & Mavondo, 2011; Baily et al., 2006; Sandvik et al., 2014). The very idea of innovation was actually born in industry, however, the transition of the economic system to the one where services play a dominant or at least an equal role, resulted in the phenomenon of innovation spreading in
the service sector as well (Schumpeter, 1934; Swann, 2009; Hjalager, 2010).
Jaewon Choi, Hong Joo Lee, Joon Yeon Choeh
Social interactions such as user discussions, reviews, and replies on websites have become a major communication channel for customers to discuss their opinions on various topics (Appel et al., 2020). Social networking sites provide real-time communication and opportunity to connect to an unlimited number of friends at no extra cost. As a result, this enables consumers to share and discuss various opportunities in the market. Getting information about products across to potential customers is critical as their purchase decisions rely heavily on other customers’ opinions from social media (Park et al., 2007). As Simon (2019) pointed out, information systems have increased information flow between opinion leaders and the general public to the point of information overload. Thus, companies are tracking the perceptions of their products from customer reviews and social media to monitor their brand image (Cruz & Lee, 2014).
Miroslava Kostková, Pavlína Pellešová, Patrik Kajzar
Tourism is an economically important sector in the world. Demand in tourism is strongly influenced by global trends in leisure, IT technology, etc. Trends affecting the demand of tourists and visitors to tourist destinations due to changes in their preferences cause changes in the offer of tourist services. Identifying new trends, examining changes, and incorporating innovation present, therefore, an important task for tourism businesses. The introduction of new trends and innovations in the offer of accommodation and catering companies have significantly affected tourist destinations, as revenues from accommodation and catering services within the balance of payments of tourism in the Czech Republic account for more than half of its. The paper deals with the results of research, which was carried out in two phases in 2017 and 2020, within the institutional project ‘Tourism Trends in the Moravian Silesian Region’.
Bojana Vuković, Kristina Mijić, Dejan Jakšić, Dušan Saković
Cash is one of the key items in the balance sheet, since it is necessary for every transaction. Cash holdings provide the company with flexibility and the ability to meet its own needs, regardless of existing business conditions. It can be significant in terms of the company’s internal financing, thus it is crucial to maintain an optimal level of cash, given that external financing also entails certain costs. An optimal level of cash holdings represents available money to investors and should increase general business efficiency. Achieving an optimal level of cash holdings provides the company with autonomy to explore new opportunities as well as take risks. An insufficient level of cash creates the need for financing from external sources, which is reflected in reduced investments and decreased sale of available assets and securities. However, a large amount of cash enables the company to respond to market trends and take advantage of investment opportunities so as to secure the financial power of the company.
Khurram Ajaz Khan, Gentjan Çera, Sandra Raquel Pinto Alves
The capability theory is concerned with an individual’s ability and opportunity to act, which grants the freedom to live life as one pleases (Sen, 1993). Based upon this theory, financial capability relates to the ability and opportunity to act (Johnson & Sherraden, 2007). A more detail definition given by Brown (2020) that financial capability is classified as internally focused including knowledge, skills, and behaviour, and those that also acknowledge a person’s external context including systems and structures. Many scholars concur that the concept of financial capability is much broader than the idea of financial literacy (Johnson & Sherraden, 2007; Kempson et al., 2013; Shim et al., 2013; Taylor, 2011). Studies explain that financial capability is a broader term, and financial literacy is just a building block of financial capability. It also includes financial advice and financial inclusion (Johnson & Sherraden, 2007). According to Sen’s (1993) theory, financial capability comes from two sources: internal ability and, second, from external opportunity.
Anna Bartoszewicz, Anna Rutkowska-Ziarko
In recent years, non-financial reporting has become a global practice used by businesses almost all over the world. Its dynamic development can be also recently observed in Poland, which is reflected in the growing number of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports published voluntarily by enterprises. Their scope includes non-financial results obtained within the environmental, social and economic area and informs about the risk associated with the initiatives undertaken by companies. Although the data contained in CSR reports are informative to stakeholders and are used in the decision-making process, there is a certain concern that they may lack reliability (compare with Dal Maso et al., 2020). It is not out of the question that companies, while promoting their activities, will disclose only selected, usually positive, aspects of their operations. Therefore, it appears reasonable to subject the disclosures presented in CSR reports to an audit, which, in this context, means an independent and objective verification of the non-financial information contained in the report, and their attestation (confirmation) in terms of reliability.
Investment incentives are a widely used tool of economic policy employed not only in the Czech Republic (CR) but also in other European economies. Given the ambiguous perception established by the review of the literature on investment incentives and the effects that supported investment brings to the economy, this article aims to evaluate the issue of investment incentives in the CR with the use of a time series regression analysis (1998–2019) in order to answer two main research questions: Do investment incentives attract investment into economically weaker regions? Do investments supported by incentives lead to the economic prosperity of these regions? The inspiration for the article comes from a comprehensive study focused on investment incentives in the CR (Schwarz et al., 2007). The experts’ views on investment incentives are ambiguous – some perceive them positively, others criticize them and consider them undesirable.