Ekonomika a management
ALTER EGO ONLY FOUR TIMES? THE CASE STUDY OF BUSINESS PROFITS IN THE VISEGRAD GROUP
The paper studies a new point of view and the approach to profit as an inherent part of business finance as well as a symbol of every healthy economy. The fundamental function of the profit is a stimulus; it means initial motivator of the business activity. The profit provides core resources for survival at the business start and after the stabilization, it is the synonym for progress. The aim of this paper is to detect significant change-points in times series of EBITDA during the analysed period in every country of the Visegrad Group to recognize the progress years in the monotonic development. We use a method of homogeneity test of time series that delivers significant robust results. We observe the variable EBITDA to eliminate different tax, interest and depreciation policies of these emerging countries. The original research of this article is based on empirical results of business profits of the sample of 3,853 enterprises covered by the broad theoretical review. Firstly, we identify missing values; and detect the outliers by Z-score and Grubbs test. EBITDA of 1,058 Slovak enterprises, 688 Czech enterprises, 1,376 Polish enterprises and 731 Hungarian enterprises is analysed during the period from 2010 to 2018. We eliminate the inconsistent observations and construct average values of EBITDA. Secondly, we prove normality by Jarque-Bera test, and support it by Shapiro-Wilk test, Anderson-Darling test, Lilliefors test to deliver reliable results. Thirdly, we find an independency of distribution that confirm randomness by the Box-Pierce test. And finally, we identify the years that affect heterogeneity of EBITDA in the countries of the Visegrad Four. We uncover some really surprising results. For all countries in the Visegrad Four, the year 2013 is detected as a change-point at a significance level of 0.05. This significant year shifts EBITDA between two homogeneous series with corresponding central lines and recognizes the similar annual development within the groups. In addition, we discuss the results to the areas and factors affecting the business risk. The adjustable area represented by the business dynamism has no significant impact on the development of EBITDA. The uncontrollable macroeconomic factors such as a GDP, unemployment rate, inflation rate, average monthly gross wage, and Ease of doing business index demonstrate the same development of Slovak, Czech, Polish and Hungarian enterprises. We connect our gained results to the undisputed influence of these factors and its derived components on monotonic development of EBITDA. Despite the fact, that the countries are not economically interconnected as they used to be in the past, in has to be underlined that their mutual relations are still very narrow and close and that might be the reason, why identical results are achieved in the countries with divergent development.
Jméno a příjmení autora:
Katarína Valášková, Beáta Gavurová, Pavol Ďurana, Mária Kováčová
Business finance, change-point, profit, uniformity, Visegrad Four
DOI (& full text):
Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of the culture. Globalization brings together new…více
Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of the culture. Globalization brings together new opportunities also new threads (Vagner, 2016). Many studies have been published that assess business environment quality, risk, determinants, and influencing factors (Rowland, 2019). The enterprises must define the nature of the profit, the conditions of its creation, their importance for society, the legislative framework, the particular aim and also the financing conditions in the country (Vagner & Zadnanova, 2019) to be on the side of winners in the global market. The aim of this paper is to detect significant change-points in times series of EBITDA during the analysed period in every country of the Visegrad Group to recognize the progress years in the monotonic development. We identify the research gap in this issue because no studies focus on homogeneity of time series of business profit both in the area of Visegrad group and in the European Union.
Ekonomika a management