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DIGITAL INEQUALITY AND USAGE GAP IN THE V4 REGION

Anna Vallušová, Ivana Kuráková, Žaneta Lacová

The digitalization of economies and societies has been one of the key elements in the development of countries worldwide for more than 30 years. However, countries differ in their achieved level of digitalization due to distinctions in technical infrastructure development and human capital characteristics. The four countries of the Visegrád region, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia, were facing the beginning of the digitalization of their economies (in the 1990s) in the period of their ongoing transition processes from centrally planned to market economies. Thus, the resources for the digitalization of these countries were limited in the last decade of the twentieth century. However, the beginning of the new century was marked by a catching-up process of the V4 countries to the other European Union Member States in all areas of social and economic life, including digitalization aspects.
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DIFFERENCES IN THE CAPACITY OF ADOPTION OF THE ENABLING ICTS FOR INDUSTRY 4.0 IN CHILE

Francisco Gatica-Neira, Mario Ramos-Maldonado

This work seeks to identify the degree of diffusion of some enabling ICTs for industries in the Chilean productive fabric. Some technologies included here are: Big data, RIFD, Cloud computing, ERP, CRM, SCM and the area of IT security, which are basic elements for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Data from the Survey on Access and Use of Information and Communication (ICT) in Companies 2018, which were published by the Ministry of Economy of Chile (MINECON, 2020), were used. It should be noted that a part of the total enabling technologies for Industry 4.0 is measured, which are not only focused on software, but also include innovation in electronics, optics and mechatronics. We currently are lacking the sufficiently comprehensive national statistics that allow us to fully follow the phenomenon of adoption of this type of technology.
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MEASURES SUPPORTING ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN SLOVAK SMES IN THE MOST VULNERABLE INDUSTRIES IN TIMES OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Ľubica Lesáková, Miroslava Vinczeová, Alena Kaščáková

The crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has become an unpredictable global risk and is one of the largest global public health crises so far. At the same time, it triggers a serious economic crisis at the country and global levels and can have severe consequences for the future. The primary objective (with a view also to further economic development) must now be the protection of human health. Strict measures were and are necessary to prevent the spread of a disease that does not know any borders in today’s globally interconnected world, but which, to an unexpectedly large extent, restrict the functioning of businesses and the economy as a whole, thereby seriously disrupting many value chains. Although it is currently impossible to predict the overall economic impact of the crisis, it is already clear that it is a huge external shock manifesting itself on both the supply and demand sides.
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CONSUMERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF HEALTH AND FACTORS INFLUENCING FULFILMENT OF THE NEED FOR HEALTHCARE IN EU COUNTRIES

Irena Antošová, Naďa Hazuchová, Jana Stávková

The health is defined as a state of a person’s physical, mental, and social well-being. Responsibility for health is determined not only by the healthcare system and genetic predispositions of individuals but also by one’s lifestyle and approach to achieving and keeping a good state of health (World Health Organization, 2006). Consumer behaviour concerning healthcare differs from other areas, above all because it is “a question of life and death”. Therefore, this type of decision-making tends to get significantly affected by emotions (Cazacu, 2015). Another significant difference is that consumers get healthcare products and services through a third party, most often a physician, who recommends steps to be taken and makes the decisions (Radulescu et al., 2012). Kenkel (1990) states that physicians can create or reduce demand for their services. Meeting health care needs is not always a matter of consumer choice, but other factors also play a role.
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SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE STRATEGY OF BUSINESS ENTITIES

Eva Fuchsová

The concept of CSR has been gradually created on the concept of corporate altruism, and its existence is supported by the conclusion of several professional studies on the positive link between social responsibility and financial performance. The broader approach to this issue also takes indirect links into account. The most common outcomes are that this relationship is more layered, and positive effects prevail. At the same time, other, no less important benefits are highlighted, especially that of strengthening the company’s reputation, reducing (transaction) costs and risks, strengthening the strategic competitive advantage and, last, but not least, creating conditions for the synergy of information and values that benefit everyone (Carroll, 2015). Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (SCSR) has been in mainstream CSR theory since the beginning of the new millennium, but the first signs of such an approach to. CSR can be found as early as the 1990s (Burke & Logsdon, 1996).
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MANAGERS’ ETHICS OF TAX EVASION: THE ROLES OF FAMILY, RELIGION, AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

Thuy Thi Diem Vo, Kristine Velasquez Tuliao, Chung-wen Chen

Ethical behaviors promote credibility among individuals, contributing to the well-being of a society. The increasing challenge among people to be openly responsible and be an exemplar of moral behavior repeatedly calls for policy proposals from both individuals and organizations. Tax attitude is viewed as one of the ethical issues that has long been a paramount concern in our society. Tax morale is considered so closely fastened to behavior to serve as an authority for action (Halla, 2012). Several studies on tax ethics examined the relationship between taxpayers and the government as well as personal attributes (e.g., Alm & Torgler, 2006). The studies of Richardson (2008) and Tsakumis et al. (2007) examined the influence of cultural values on tax behavior.
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FIRM AGILITY AND DIGITALISATION LESS HELPFUL THAN EXPECTED DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC, BUT VALUABLE IN THE LONGER RUN

Tjaša Redek, Tomaž Čater, Barbara Čater, Matej Černe, Matjaž Koman

The world had only just bounced back from the 2009 crisis when in 2020 COVID-19 triggered one of the biggest crises in almost a century, according to the OECD (2020b), causing a major disruption to world health, economic activity, well-being, and jobs. Estimated GDP performance in 2020 shows the 27 members of the European Union on average lost 6.1% of GDP compared to 2019 and around 660,000 jobs, despite substantial government support. The greatest decline was seen in Italy, losing almost 11% of GDP over 2019. Spain, Greece, and Croatia lost 8% or more of GDP, being hit largely due to their dependence on tourism. CEE economies lost between 2.7% (Poland) and 5.6% (Slovenia) of GDP (Eurostat, 2021). While aggregate estimates have been available for a few months, very little evidence can be found on the crisis’ impact on the firm level and the contribution made by various factors to differences in firm performance in 2019.
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JOB STANDARDIZATION AND DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

Hsiao-Yen Mao

Businesses today are facing fiercely competitive global environments and firms use widespread mass production of goods and services for lower cost and larger market shares to sustain their survival and growth (Shalley & Gilson, 2017). Therefore, a job design and characteristic of standardization has long been adopted to stifle production variation by individual employees and to maintain output consistency, effectiveness and efficiency (Koval et al., 2019; Luoh et al., 2014; Shalley & Gilson, 2017). Job standardization has long been recognized and shown to be essential for production efficiency and best-practice reasons (Shalley & Gilson, 2017). However, Keeley (1988) maintained that organizations have a fundamental tension between the goal of efficiency and the goal of morality and struggle for a delicate balance between these competing objectives.
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EFFECTIVE DETECTION AND PREVENTION OF FRAUD: PERCEPTIONS AMONG PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS IN SAUDI ARABIA

Faisal D. Alfordy

Fraud has metamorphosed into a major global concern. Regardless of size, profitability, or industry, organizations currently face severe challenges concerning economic and operational sustainability in the wake of deliberate and unethical fraudulent acts. The PricewaterhouseCoopers (hereinafter referred to as PwC) (2020) survey revealed that 47% of international firms were affected by fraud compared to 49% in 2018, 36% in 2016, 37% in 2014, and 34% in 2011. The PwC’s (2020) survey respondents reported total losses of 42 billion USD owing to fraud that negatively impacted brands, reputations, and market shares. Ironically, only 56% of the affected organizations conducted investigations, whereas barely one-third of these companies reported fraudulent outcomes to their boards.
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EVALUATION OF THE FINANCIAL HEALTH OF FOOD RETAIL OUTLETS IN A MARKET ENVIRONMENT. A CASE STUDY FROM THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

Lenka Hudáková Stašová

Identifying the optimal location for a business in a market environment depends on the quality and availability of up-to-date information on comparable businesses, maintaining the conditions of comparability, selection of indicators and the methods of analysis of the financial and economic position of the business in the space. In this paper, food retail stores are evaluated. We have focused on this type of organization, because they are also of some importance for people from smaller towns, especially villages where there is only 1 store. In the event of its closure, residents are dependent on travelling to larger cities. Doing business in food retail is not as easy as it seems. With the arrival of retail chains, there was a significant reversal in consumer purchasing behaviour. People began preferring cheaper and lower-quality food. Today, the situation has changed and a growing number of consumers also place emphasis on the quality of food sold. They pay for quality and safe food.
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