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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR CHANGES DURING TIMES OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON SLOVAK CONSUMERS

Lenka Veselovská, Ján Závadský, Lucia Bartková

Humankind finds itself facing unparalleled circumstances since the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 created significant changes in societies worldwide. Societies were surprised at the rapid spread of the virus and the ensuing global crisis. Due to the worldwide effects of the crises many authors compare it to natural disasters (Anderson et al., 2020; Sarkis et al., 2020; De Vito & Gómez, 2020; Haghani et al., 2020; Haroon & Rizvi, 2020). The scope of COVID-19 crisis caused significant disruptions in economic, social and health systems, thus creating a challenge for societies. For entrepreneurs, this crisis brought both problems and opportunities. These conditions laid bare their vulnerabilities and critical points. Consumers were forced to adapt their needs and shopping habits to extreme conditions influenced by both implemented and enforced government measures to stop the spread of the virus.
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THE GDPR AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EIGHT EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

Marek Zanker, Vladimír Bureš, Anna Cierniak-Emerych, Martin Nehéz

Individuals and corporations alike are aware of the need for data protection. They undergo training and perform exercises where various types data-jeopardizing techniques or cyberattacks are simulated in order to increase the resilience of society and preparedness for crisis situations (National Cyber and Information Security Agency, 2019a). With the help of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the European Commission (EC) seeks to draw a line between the personal data security and the free and uncontrolled manipulation of personal data (IT Governance Privacy Team, 2020). Since its advent, the GDPR has put burden on the shoulders of various institutions which have been struggling to share data. Not surprisingly, it brought a flareup of frustration (Bovenberg et al., 2020). The intension was good, as the GDPR would ensure and balance the fragile relationship between the data protection and other regulations, such as competition law, consumer protection or intellectual property (De Hert et al., 2018).
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THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON SALES PROMOTION IN ENTERTAINMENT COMPANIES

Dalia Štreimikienė, Asta Mikalauskienė, Urtė Sturienė, Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos

Due to the improvement of technologies and increasing number of internet users, more companies choose social networks to promote sales of goods and services, increase recognition and visibility and communication with potential clients in real time online. At the moment, internet marketing is considered one of the most powerful marketing tools, because it unites the biggest number of users and has the means to implement different aims of the companies. The quickly increased popularity of social networks and social commerce are considered the third revolution of communication that provides freedom for companies to communicate with target audience, regardless of place and time (Stoian et al., 2018; Pavlovaite & Gresiene, 2019; Zhou et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2020). Thus, the impact of internet and marketing tools, in a general sense, is a phenomenon that is highly significant in the business world and is developing quickly.
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SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION SECTOR IN POLAND

Tadeusz A. Grzeszczyk, Waldemar Izdebski, Michał Izdebski, Tadeusz Waściński

The EU policy is largely shaped by the idea of sustainable development, which is based on the assumption of satisfying the developmental aspirations of the present generation in such a way as to enable the next generations to achieve the same aspirations (Brundtland, 1987). For economists, the suitable way to sharpen this idea is to consider the various resources (including renewable and nonrenewable natural resources) that communities hold at any particular time. Resources passed to future generations should be comparable (in terms of the ability to provide an adequate standard of living) with the stocks inherited by their ancestors (Streimikiene & Mikalauskiene, 2016).
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PATTERNS OF 50 ETF OPTIONS IMPLIED VOLATILITY IN CHINA: ON IMPLIED VOLATILITY FUNCTIONS

Pengshi Li, Yan Lin, Yuting Zhong

The implied volatilities are prospective estimates which reflect future expectations about underlying asset volatility. The implied volatility can be seen as the market participants’ assessment of the uncertainty of the underlying asset. Implied volatilities are obtained by matching a set of market option prices with given strike price and time to maturity to those produced by Black-Scholes-Merton model (BSM model) using the same strike price and time to maturity. When the implied volatilities are plotted against various strike prices or different moneyness, one can obtain the implied volatility smile curve, while the pattern of implied volatilities across time to expiration is usually referred to as the term structure of implied volatilities.
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ALTMAN MODEL VERIFICATION USING A MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH FOR SLOVAKIAN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES

Roman Vavrek, Petra Gundová, Ivana Kravčáková Vozárová, Rastislav Kotulič

a successful business is good knowledge of past and current trends, for the right long-term decisions to be made. According to Brealey et al. (2011), knowing where a company stands today is a necessary prelude to contemplating where the company might end up in the future. One of the options for supporting short-term and long-term decisions is financial analysis and financial ratios. Financial ratios have traditionally been indicators of a corporate’s overall performance (Rahman et al., 2017) and may help to quantify the potential impact of internal ratings on financial performance (Belas et al., 2012; Klieštik et al., 2020).
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THE EFFECT OF SECTORAL DIVISION ON GDP PER CAPITA IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

Peter Burger, Lea Šlampiaková

The presumption that the production structure of an economy is the fundamental determinant of economic performance has been confirmed by previous economic literature. There is growth observed in a country when the production structure is composed of commodities with intense returns (Reinert, 2008; Andreoni & Scazzieri, 2014). Moreover, Andreoni (2014) has noted that the proximate source of innovation is a further source of importance in economic activities with increasing returns. According to Fourastié (1951), sectors are developing along with technological and innovation developments, but not evenly. In the sectoral structure of the national economy of the Slovak Republic, the main focus had been initially on agriculture, fishing and mining, until the industrialisation process began.
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MODERATING ROLE OF USER EXPERIENCE AND IT RELIABILITY IN CONTROLLING INFLUENCE ON JOB PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

Agnieszka Bieńkowska, Katarzyna Tworek, Anna Zabłocka-Kluczka

Controlling is a method, which is most often used in contemporary organizations (Bieńkowska & Zgrzywa-Ziemak, 2011; Tworek, 2019c). “Importance of controlling increased sharply” (Guenther, 2013, p. 272), which in practice is confirmed by the growing number of job offers for controllers, and in theory by the number of academic centers dealing with this subject (Schäffer & Binder, 2008). However, it is still considered by many as “a concept that is still subject of many controversies” (Mocanu, 2014, p. 62), and the diversity in the perception of this method is confirmed, among others, by information in the job announcements appearing on the job market (Behringer, 2011). The multi-threaded history of controlling promotes differences in the perception of controlling in the world, as well as the relative diversity of controlling solutions in organizations (e.g. Horvath, 2002).
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EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF EVALUATION OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS ON THE MARKET VALUE OF THE LISTED COMPANIES

Cristina Gabriela Cosmulese, Marian Socoliuc, Marius-Sorin Ciubotariu, Veronica Grosu, Dorel Mateş

The shortcomings in traditional financial reporting have become more than obvious, if we look at the results of different researches or studies in the field, but especially according to the thesis supported by Robert Eccles, from Harvard Business School, which shows that only 25% of the market value of a company can be attributed to its accounting value, the rest of 75% coming from the evaluation of the value created by IA (such as strategies, product innovation, customer loyalty, future profits, goodwill, etc), which are fully accounted for only extraordinary events, such as acquisitions and mergers of companies, or the sale of their subsidiaries (Eccles, 1991). Thus, only a small part of the factors that contribute to the creation of value are identified and presented in the reporting used by investors, which obviously creates an obstacle in understanding the mechanisms of value creation, taking into account the strategic importance of IA.
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THE INFLUENCE OF COMPETITIVENESS ON START-UP IN SMES SEGMENT

Ján Dvorský, Martin Čepel, Mihaela Simionescu, Pavol Ďurana

In a global economy, competition is the primary driver of market competitiveness. “Globalization causes large-scale changes in the technological, economic, political, and social fields of social development. These changes have a contradictory impact on the development of national economies and their competitiveness. Ceteris paribus, there is a tight interrelation between country’s economic competitiveness and a rate of its economic growth: the higher the rates of economic growth in the country, the bigger the chance for an increase in its national competitiveness and vice versa” Fyliuk et al. (2019). In this context, Ivanová and Čepel (2019) state that the key factor of the states’ increasing competitiveness is assumed to be the innovation performance of enterprises, which is projected through innovative business processes into the innovation performance of the economy as a whole.
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