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LAND TENURE AND TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF SMALLHOLDER TEA PRODUCERS: THE CASE OF YA’AN CITY, CHINA

Abrham Tezera Gessesse, Ge He

Has been enjoyed for millennia, tea has a long and complex history in China. In recent times, more than 1,500 types of propagated clones of tea plants have been developed and cultivated in more than 36 countries as a cash crop plantation (Lighton et al., 2014). Smallholder farmers account for more than 70% of the world’s tea and 80% of China’s tea production (Chang, 2015). Although tea plantation and production has increased over the past three decades, its productivity per unit area has not significantly changed, which contrasts with other agricultural products across the globe and China in particular (Basu et al., 2010). This may be because smallholder farmers are confronted by many challenges that affect the quality and quantity of tea production. A number of contributions (Tan et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2010, 2014; Zhao, 2010,) identify the common challenges that confront smallholder farmers in China, which include a lack of modern agricultural machinery, fragmented and small farm plots, a lack of access to an irrigation and drainage system, labor shortages, poor soil quality, pests, diseases, drought and climate change.
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USE OF TIME IN SINGLE-MEMBER HOUSEHOLDS IN SLOVAKIA

Miroslava Knapková, Alena Kaščáková

Households represent one of the economic subjects entering to the market mechanism. The microeconomic theory focuses on households mostly as units of consumption, savings, partly as production units. Households participate on the side of the supply as well as on the side of the demand (Samuelson & Nordhaus, 2013; Mankiw, 1999). Households´ specific status on the supply side arises from the fact that households offer their ability to work at the labour market. When considering households on the demand side, mostly demand for goods and services that satisfied households´ needs must be included.
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