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DO LINKS TO TAX HAVENS AFFECT COMPANIES’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE? THE CASE OF SLOVAKIA

Ľuboš Elexa, Michal Ištok, Lea Šlampiaková

Tax havens are both a controversial and thrilling area of research. Since the last financial crisis there has been a dramatic increase of research interest in this area. The most frequently researched areas in relation to tax havens can be divided into positive: for example, attracting more foreign direct investments (FDI), or potentially increased financial performance and productivity, and negative: for example, aggressive tax planning, money laundering or machinations in public procurements. The last decade’s research results suggest the value of a focus on negative outcomes: aggressive tax planning, related profit-shifting techniques, and the consequences of having anonymous ultimate beneficial owners (UBO). In the Slovak business environment, research on tax havens has been long neglected. In contrast to other jurisdictions, there are no academic studies that might inform improvements in tax legislation, or provide support for the Financial Administration of the Slovak Republic.
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INCOME TAX PREFERENCE AND R&D INVESTMENTS OF HIGH-TECH ENTERPRISES IN CHINA

Wunhong Su,Yi-Hao Fan

Science and technology contribute 87.5% to economic growth (Solow, 1957). Enterprises, especially high-tech enterprises, largely perform research and Development (R&D) activities. Risks of R&D activities lead to free-riding among enterprises. The income tax preference is preferred to control the free-riding because of reflecting the incentive effect of tax revenue on the economic development (Bronzini & Piselli, 2016). Most industrialized countries implement special income tax incentives to boost the R&D investment of enterprises (Elschner et al., 2011). The additional deduction, accelerated depreciation, and innovation box are common policies (McCutchen, 1993). For instance, Japan issues the schedule of fixed assets depreciation in 1951 and stimulate Innovation of enterprises. Since 2003, OECD countries continually increase incentives for enterprises to the R&D investment. China begins to offer income tax preference to R&D investments of enterprises in the 1990s.
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THE USE OF INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING IN SUBSIDIARIES FROM THE FINANCIAL AND ICT SECTORS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Vít Jedlička

the profitability of their company’s investments. They also encounter various types of costs – from the managerial perspective, these include paid taxes. Therefore, the management at multinational corporations takes advantage of the global digital economy and tries to plan tax liabilities in order to minimize them. Ignoring the opportunity to avoid taxes can result in a less competitive position. Tax planning has become an important tool for achieving better financial results. Within the global economy, the international aspect of tax planning is a key factor for multinational corporation management. The importance of tax burdens can also be seen in decision making on where to invest. Lower tax burdens can increase an investment’s profitability; therefore, managers incorporate rating tax legislation into their decision-making process for investment.
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MACROECONOMIC TIME SERIES AFFECTING THE MINIMUM AND AVERAGE WAGES OF V4 COUNTRIES

Lucie Meixnerová, Michal Krajňák

The minimum wage institute was established at the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Its purpose was to ensure the protection of the workforce. The minimum wage ensures that the labour market wage cannot fall below the determined level, which takes the form in accordance with the economic and political conditions of the country concerned (Dube et al., 2010). The determined level of the minimum wage results either from the tripartite act, which is made up of representatives of government, employers and trade unions or is enacted in relation to a percentage of the average wage level. Lopresti and Mumford (2016) mention that setting a minimum wage is a very complex problem, as its value is related to the price of labour that affects employers’ competitiveness. The minimum wage affects not only the part of the employer but also the employee, as employees want to receive fair remuneration for their work that will ensure them the required standard of living.
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INVESTOR DECISION-MAKING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EFFECTIVE CORPORATE TAXATION

Veronika Konečná, Alena Andrejovská

In the search for an analytical framework for financing and investment location, that is important to follow the tax tracts, which significantly contribute to the important decision of foreign investors. Corporate taxation is an important element of the tax system of European countries and the one of key factors that influence investors of companies in managing and deciding on the location of their investments and business activities. In terms of economic efficiency, tax systems should ideally be “neutral”, particularly as regards economic decisions. From this perspective, the location of investments in different countries in the international context should not face markedly different effect levels of taxation. The first and important dimension is a statutory tax rate, which is determined by the tax laws. It is the simplest and most affordable way to obtain tax information in country, but it is definitely not decisive. According to Bayer (2011), Gupta, (2007) Clausing (2007) and Mura (2019) it is important to monitor the overall tax burden that represents the size of the enterprise’s tax. In other words, it is important to monitor the proportion of taxes paid on the total income or profit of an enterprise in that country.
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THE IMPACT OF SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES ON EXPORT BEHAVIOUR. EVIDENCE FROM POLISH FIRM-LEVEL DATA

Jarosław Michał Nazarczuk, Stanisław Umiński

The establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZ), and other types of privileged areas, is a common policy approach adopted by countries in order to attract domestic and foreign capital, increase exports or employment, increase trade openness or facilitate minor economic transitions within the country. By setting a preferential business climate, with lower taxes and tariffs made available in a restricted territory, governments promote investment inflow and encourage flourishing businesses to grow and cluster within zones, thus generating positive spill-over effects to the neighbouring areas.
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MANDATORY CCCTB IMPLEMENTATION IN THE EUROZONE AND ITS IMPACT ON CORPORATE TAX REVENUES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Danuše Nerudová, Veronika Solilová

There have been many attempts to coordinate the corporate taxation systems of EU Member States. First, in 1962, the European Commission suggested splitting the corporate tax rates and applying a different tax rate for retained and distributed profits. Furthermore, eight years later, the Temple report suggested the implementation of a classical system of corporate taxation in the EU Member States.
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ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN SUBSIDIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON REGIONAL ECONOMIC DISPARITIES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Kristýna Brzáková, Jiří Kraft

European Union allocated 513 billion CZK through the European Structural and Investment funds (ESI) to the Czech Republic during the previous programming period of the European Union (EU) (i.e. 2007-2013) based on data of Ministry of Regional Development CZ (MRD CZ) (MRD CZ, 2015a). The amount of money was allocated to the renewal of decaying residential, tourist and civic brownfields, to educate people, to support businesses, educational institutions, agriculture and generally support the lagging regions that are below the average of gross domestic product (GDP) in the EU25.
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