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New Articles – Economics


CONVERGENCE CLUBS OF NUTS3 REGIONS OF THE V4 GROUP

Izabella Szakálné Kanó, Imre Lengyel

The issue of whether there is convergence or divergence between regions in terms of GDP per capita has long been investigated in regional studies. According to the position of neoclassical economics, if factors can flow freely and comparative advantages prevail, the flows of labour force and capital in opposite directions result in convergence in the long term. Less developed countries and regions with accelerated growth converge toward more developed regions. This hypothesis has been tested in several studies, utilising extensive methodology and instruments for the examination of convergence between countries and regions, e.g., absolute and conditional convergence, or beta and sigma convergence (Breinlich et al., 2014; Eurofound, 2018; Ertur & Le Gallo, 2009; Fischer & Stumpner, 2010; Halmai & Vásáry, 2012; Le Gallo & Fingleton, 2014; LeSage & Fischer, 2009).
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THE DEFENSE OF PRICE DISCRIMINATION IN NETWORK AND INFORMATION GOODS MARKETS

Ivan Soukal

There can be found many articles in which price discrimination was swiftly considered as a negative phenomenon, mainly behavioural economy studies. Such studies described it as pricing leading to consumer-detrimental effects and increasing companies’ profits. However, this rule is not as universal as it may seem. The case is more complicated because exceptions do exist, and they are far from rare – software, cell carrier services, real-time stock quotes, electronic newspapers subscription, electric energy supply, payment accounts, books, copyrighted content streaming, file storage, and more. These information and network goods were often treated as any mass-produced physical goods, which is not an adequate approach. The article’s ambition is to contribute to a change. I hope that after reading the article, you would agree that price discrimination in the case of information and network goods should be viewed by different optics.
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EVALUATING ENERGY CONSUMPTION EFFICIENCY IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION: APPLYING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

Zulqarnain Mushtaq, Wei Wei, Maimoona Sharif, Abbas Ali Chandio

Tobacco is one of the most important cash crops and is considered as a domineering industrial crop. Tobacco is more proficient than any other crops to produce a massive amount of biofuel if cultivated for energy production instead of smoking (Andrianov et al., 2010). Pakistan is the world’s 8th largest tobacco producer (Shahbandeh, 2020). Over 75,000 farmers are cultivating tobacco in Pakistan. The crop was cultivated about on 51,000 hectars with a total production of 113,000 tones during 2017 (GOP, 2018). Tobacco crop got a significant place in the economy of the country by accommodating 350,000 workers directly and indirectly and is also adding up revenue of over Rs. 300 billion per annum. It is also providing a livelihood to about 1.2 million people in the country (Board, 2018). It is worth mentioning that tobacco has witnessed a decrease in production during 2016 with negative growth of 2.6 percent, over the same period last year (GOP, 2018).
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INFLUENCE OF SELECTED MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

Miloš Hitka, Jozef Ďurian, Silvia Lorincová, Bianka Dúbravská

In recent years, the importance of human resource management in companies has been growing unstoppably. It is related to the growth of modern technologies, the education of the population, dynamic movements in the market of goods and labour, the democratisation of society, etc. However, in the face of growing pressure, the complexity of change, and the competition they face on a daily basis, most executives have to cope with the growing conflict and divide between management and leadership requirements of organisations. Managers work under a lot of pressure and stress, so they do not have the time and sometimes the desire to be a leader, and conversely, leaders do not manage to be managers. Combining the two functions is extremely difficult. Because every company works first and foremost with people, there is always a large number of tasks that the company must successfully solve in order to exist. Since human resources are of strategic importance to everyone today, they are a prerequisite for the existence of the company and its further development.
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LAND TENURE AND TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF SMALLHOLDER TEA PRODUCERS: THE CASE OF YA’AN CITY, CHINA

Abrham Tezera Gessesse, Ge He

Has been enjoyed for millennia, tea has a long and complex history in China. In recent times, more than 1,500 types of propagated clones of tea plants have been developed and cultivated in more than 36 countries as a cash crop plantation (Lighton et al., 2014). Smallholder farmers account for more than 70% of the world’s tea and 80% of China’s tea production (Chang, 2015). Although tea plantation and production has increased over the past three decades, its productivity per unit area has not significantly changed, which contrasts with other agricultural products across the globe and China in particular (Basu et al., 2010). This may be because smallholder farmers are confronted by many challenges that affect the quality and quantity of tea production. A number of contributions (Tan et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2010, 2014; Zhao, 2010,) identify the common challenges that confront smallholder farmers in China, which include a lack of modern agricultural machinery, fragmented and small farm plots, a lack of access to an irrigation and drainage system, labor shortages, poor soil quality, pests, diseases, drought and climate change.
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