Zulqarnain Mushtaq, Wei Wei, Maimoona Sharif, Abbas Ali Chandio
Tobacco is one of the most important cash crops and is considered as a domineering industrial crop. Tobacco is more proficient than any other crops to produce a massive amount of biofuel if cultivated for energy production instead of smoking (Andrianov et al., 2010). Pakistan is the world’s 8th largest tobacco producer (Shahbandeh, 2020). Over 75,000 farmers are cultivating tobacco in Pakistan. The crop was cultivated about on 51,000 hectars with a total production of 113,000 tones during 2017 (GOP, 2018). Tobacco crop got a significant place in the economy of the country by accommodating 350,000 workers directly and indirectly and is also adding up revenue of over Rs. 300 billion per annum. It is also providing a livelihood to about 1.2 million people in the country (Board, 2018). It is worth mentioning that tobacco has witnessed a decrease in production during 2016 with negative growth of 2.6 percent, over the same period last year (GOP, 2018).
Miloš Hitka, Jozef Ďurian, Silvia Lorincová, Bianka Dúbravská
In recent years, the importance of human resource management in companies has been growing unstoppably. It is related to the growth of modern technologies, the education of the population, dynamic movements in the market of goods and labour, the democratisation of society, etc. However, in the face of growing pressure, the complexity of change, and the competition they face on a daily basis, most executives have to cope with the growing conflict and divide between management and leadership requirements of organisations. Managers work under a lot of pressure and stress, so they do not have the time and sometimes the desire to be a leader, and conversely, leaders do not manage to be managers. Combining the two functions is extremely difficult. Because every company works first and foremost with people, there is always a large number of tasks that the company must successfully solve in order to exist. Since human resources are of strategic importance to everyone today, they are a prerequisite for the existence of the company and its further development.
Abrham Tezera Gessesse, Ge He
Has been enjoyed for millennia, tea has a long and complex history in China. In recent times, more than 1,500 types of propagated clones of tea plants have been developed and cultivated in more than 36 countries as a cash crop plantation (Lighton et al., 2014). Smallholder farmers account for more than 70% of the world’s tea and 80% of China’s tea production (Chang, 2015). Although tea plantation and production has increased over the past three decades, its productivity per unit area has not significantly changed, which contrasts with other agricultural products across the globe and China in particular (Basu et al., 2010). This may be because smallholder farmers are confronted by many challenges that affect the quality and quantity of tea production. A number of contributions (Tan et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2010, 2014; Zhao, 2010,) identify the common challenges that confront smallholder farmers in China, which include a lack of modern agricultural machinery, fragmented and small farm plots, a lack of access to an irrigation and drainage system, labor shortages, poor soil quality, pests, diseases, drought and climate change.
Pavel Zdražil, Ivana Kraftová
The dominant determinant of development, in the current economy affected by globalization, is not the quantity of resources, but especially their productivity. Although the productivity is not everything on the way towards the successful economics, as Krugman (1997) pointed out, it is almost everything in the longrun. The premise of favourable development is therefore the effective, efficient and economical use of available resources, whose appropriate structure and rational allocation is the basis for the efficiency of the process of transforming the potential to entering real outputs. On this basis, a country or region is competing with its surroundings, as well as affecting the living conditions and quality of life of the population (Capello et al., 2011).
Tadeusz A. Grzeszczyk, Waldemar Izdebski, Michał Izdebski, Tadeusz Waściński
The EU policy is largely shaped by the idea of sustainable development, which is based on the assumption of satisfying the developmental aspirations of the present generation in such a way as to enable the next generations to achieve the same aspirations (Brundtland, 1987). For economists, the suitable way to sharpen this idea is to consider the various resources (including renewable and nonrenewable natural resources) that communities hold at any particular time. Resources passed to future generations should be comparable (in terms of the ability to provide an adequate standard of living) with the stocks inherited by their ancestors (Streimikiene & Mikalauskiene, 2016).