Zhuang Xiong, Junzhou Yan, Lingling Wang
In recent years, despite the slowdown in the world economic performance, the trend of world innovation is still booming. The Global Innovation Index 2019 released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) showed that the growth rate of global research and development expenditure is higher than that of global economy. As the foundation of entrepreneurship, the continuous improvement of innovation develops entrepreneurial activities. Moreover, the scale of entrepreneurial groups is expanding, and a vigorous entrepreneurial boom has formed through the implementation of positive entrepreneurial policies (Wang et al., 2019). However, the uncertainty and high risk in the entrepreneurship process determine that entrepreneurship is not smooth sailing. In particular, COVID-19 continues to spread throughout the world, and the business environment faced by new ventures is more difficult. More and more enterprises are unable to survive. The phenomenon of entrepreneurial failure exists objectively. Relevant data show that the failure rate of Chinese youth first venture is as high as 90% (Zheng et al., 2019). Furthermore, even the Chinese unicorn enterprises, such as OFO sharing bicycles, is from the favorite of the capital market to the end of brand failure.
M. M. Sulphey, Awad Ali Alanzi, Martin Klepek
In the current world, there is an informational imbalance in employer-employee relationships (Cabrelli, 2019). While employers usually enjoy higher levels of resources, expertise, and access to information about labour conditions, employees are disadvantaged than employers as they have to face multiple issues and barriers. Employees are in a difficult situation concerning contract negotiation and writing. Due to better resources, employers are in a better place regarding eliciting unilaterally favourable contractual terms. As employers have a form of monopoly, they tend to be involved in intimidating and unprincipled behaviours like treating employees inconsistently, which could be detrimental (Deakin, 2012). There is also a gap in the process of monitoring and enforcement of contractual obligations (Wachter, 2012). This situation tends to affect employees far more than an employer, e. g. any cost overrun for the employer is often passed down indirectly to employees in reduced compensation and deferred benefits.
Eva Šviráková, Jan Kramoliš
Design is an important factor that contributes to the business success thanks to its potential to strengthen their competitiveness (D’Ippolito, 2014). There is a correlation between the use of design and business performance and subsequent macroeconomic growth (Denmark National Agency for Enterprise and Housing, 2003). An example of an economy significantly influenced by design is Great Britain’s economy. Design Economy created a gross value added of 85.2 billion GBP in the United Kingdom in 2016, corresponding to 7% of British gross value added. In a longterm perspective, between 2009 and 2016 the economy influenced by design grew by 52% and expanded far beyond fields that are part of creative industries (Benton et al., 2018). Design is a specific subtype of Innovation (OECD/Eurostat, 2018); it is an important business factor and it is integrated into many aspects of production and deliveries of products. The use of design helps companies to innovate, it increases companies’ productivity and turnover (Benton et al., 2018).
Dana Egerová, Lenka Komárková, Jiří Kutlák
Generational differences in various workrelated characteristics such as work values, motivational drivers, preferences and workplace expectations have become a widely discussed research and intervention topic in recent years (Lyons & Kuron, 2014; Campbell et al., 2015; Sobrino-De Toro et al., 2019). The growing interest reﬂects the impact of the demographic, economic and technological shifts in society on the world of work and on how organisations maintain a multigenerational workforce (Lub et al., 2016). In recent years, research has primarily focused on the members of three generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y) to explore the features that differentiate these generations from each other in terms of workplace values, expectations, attitudes and organisational outcomes (Moore et al., 2015). At present, the next generation of employees – Generation Z – is about to enter the labour market, which will present challenges and opportunities for both researchers and companies (Knapp et al., 2017; Rodriguez et al., 2019).
Miroslav Jurásek, Petr Wawrosz
Cultural intelligence (CQ) is the ability to effectively function in a culturally diverse environment and succeed in such environment (Ang et al., 2007). CQ gives people and organizations a competitive advantage in international markets (Ang & Inkpen, 2008; Groves & Feyerherm, 2011) and is seen as a prerequisite for the success of any subject in an international environment (Elenkov & Manev, 2009; Creque & Gooden, 2011; Groves & Feyerherm, 2011; Livermore, 2015). Present success or failure in an international and intercultural environment is strongly affected by intercultural sensitivity, cultural intelligence, and ‘cross-cultural competencies’ as an overarching way of thinking (Johnson et al., 2006). These competencies make people more capable of making important global strategic decisions and communicating better on an intercultural level.