Zita Drábková, Martin Pech
Importantly, accounting is the mirror of all business activities undertaken by enterprises. Financial statements constitute an important source for decision-making by a wide range of internal and external users. The basic concept of accounting reports, which should provide reliable information for users, is the provision of a true and fair view of the situation and structure of assets, financing sources thereof, the structure of the equity capital and the enterprise’s financial state. Needless to say, accounting requires highly qualified expertise from its processors. The relevant accounting frameworks of the Czech accounting standards, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS) allow for a selection of accounting methods, assessments and estimates of certain accounting phenomena and processes. This approach is further supported by frequent changes of and amendments to accounting standards.
Radovan Savov, Jana Kozáková, Jan Tlučhoř
TPeople and especially talented individuals are of remarkable interest for many academics in research (Collings et al., 2019; Meyers et al., 2013; Krishnan & Scullion, 2017). The reason is very simple. Human resources are the most valuable resource a company should have. People are movers of each company and create added value. A high commitment human resources strategy leads to a firm competitive advantage (Collins, 2020). Employees play an important role in forming a competitive advantage for the organization. The role of the employees has become pronounced and significant, and it is no longer conventional. They are responsible for the strategic planning and development of the organization (Chakraborty & Biswas, 2019). Nowadays, firms operate in an environment which is characterized by many political, economic, social, and technological changes (Wee & Taylor, 2018).These changes force companies to transform themselves to gain greater prosperity or to survive (Ocasio et al., 2017; Riviere et al., 2017).
Mohammad Khalilzadeh, Omid Kebriyaii, Jonas Šaparauskas, Natalija Lepkova
Freeman (1984) describes stakeholders as “those groups who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the firm’s objectives”. “Each stakeholder will either expect or demand to be part of all critical decisions on the project” (Kerzner, 2009). The stakeholder engagement is the most substantial matter in any project (Abidin, 2010). Stakeholders are defined as legal entities or individuals who have stakes in a project or are able to affect project execution (Olander, 2005). McGrath and Whitty (2017) define stakeholder as “an entity with a stake (interest) in the subject activity”. Stakeholders can significantly influence on project outputs. At each project phase, the number and type of stakeholders may vary and have different interests that should be effectively met (Oppong et al., 2017). These different interests may conflict with each other and certainly make it even more difficult to determine stakeholder engagement strategies. It is not practically possible to make all project stakeholders satisfied.
Zhuang Xiong, Junzhou Yan, Lingling Wang
In recent years, despite the slowdown in the world economic performance, the trend of world innovation is still booming. The Global Innovation Index 2019 released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) showed that the growth rate of global research and development expenditure is higher than that of global economy. As the foundation of entrepreneurship, the continuous improvement of innovation develops entrepreneurial activities. Moreover, the scale of entrepreneurial groups is expanding, and a vigorous entrepreneurial boom has formed through the implementation of positive entrepreneurial policies (Wang et al., 2019). However, the uncertainty and high risk in the entrepreneurship process determine that entrepreneurship is not smooth sailing. In particular, COVID-19 continues to spread throughout the world, and the business environment faced by new ventures is more difficult. More and more enterprises are unable to survive. The phenomenon of entrepreneurial failure exists objectively. Relevant data show that the failure rate of Chinese youth first venture is as high as 90% (Zheng et al., 2019). Furthermore, even the Chinese unicorn enterprises, such as OFO sharing bicycles, is from the favorite of the capital market to the end of brand failure.
M. M. Sulphey, Awad Ali Alanzi, Martin Klepek
In the current world, there is an informational imbalance in employer-employee relationships (Cabrelli, 2019). While employers usually enjoy higher levels of resources, expertise, and access to information about labour conditions, employees are disadvantaged than employers as they have to face multiple issues and barriers. Employees are in a difficult situation concerning contract negotiation and writing. Due to better resources, employers are in a better place regarding eliciting unilaterally favourable contractual terms. As employers have a form of monopoly, they tend to be involved in intimidating and unprincipled behaviours like treating employees inconsistently, which could be detrimental (Deakin, 2012). There is also a gap in the process of monitoring and enforcement of contractual obligations (Wachter, 2012). This situation tends to affect employees far more than an employer, e. g. any cost overrun for the employer is often passed down indirectly to employees in reduced compensation and deferred benefits.