Faisal D. Alfordy
Fraud has metamorphosed into a major global concern. Regardless of size, profitability, or industry, organizations currently face severe challenges concerning economic and operational sustainability in the wake of deliberate and unethical fraudulent acts. The PricewaterhouseCoopers (hereinafter referred to as PwC) (2020) survey revealed that 47% of international firms were affected by fraud compared to 49% in 2018, 36% in 2016, 37% in 2014, and 34% in 2011. The PwC’s (2020) survey respondents reported total losses of 42 billion USD owing to fraud that negatively impacted brands, reputations, and market shares. Ironically, only 56% of the affected organizations conducted investigations, whereas barely one-third of these companies reported fraudulent outcomes to their boards.
Lenka Hudáková Stašová
Identifying the optimal location for a business in a market environment depends on the quality and availability of up-to-date information on comparable businesses, maintaining the conditions of comparability, selection of indicators and the methods of analysis of the financial and economic position of the business in the space. In this paper, food retail stores are evaluated. We have focused on this type of organization, because they are also of some importance for people from smaller towns, especially villages where there is only 1 store. In the event of its closure, residents are dependent on travelling to larger cities. Doing business in food retail is not as easy as it seems. With the arrival of retail chains, there was a significant reversal in consumer purchasing behaviour. People began preferring cheaper and lower-quality food. Today, the situation has changed and a growing number of consumers also place emphasis on the quality of food sold. They pay for quality and safe food.
Kamil Gemra, Piotr Kwestarz, Waldemar Rogowski, Mariusz Lipski
In March 2020, we witnessed enormous turbulence in the global markets caused by the escalation of problems related to the new medical phenomenon of coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. High fluctuations of indices were observed during the pandemic, but the crisis caused by fighting the virus was also reflected in firms’ essentials. The uncertainty provoked by the pandemic in the real economy also influenced listed companies. Some of them were forced to restrict or cease their operations temporarily. One of the impacts that this caused relatively quickly was on dividend decisions. Listed companies that had paid dividends for many years faced a difficult decision on whether they should still pay them or instead restrict or cease issuing dividends. The purpose of such actions would be to build a capital and liquidity buffer.
Tao Yin, Yiming Wang
Since it was proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto (2008) at the end of 2008, Bitcoin, as an alternative to conventional currencies, has quickly gained wide attention from the media, investors and scholars. This attention is attributed to its transparency, simplicity, increasing popularity, decentralized peer-to-peer system and self-regulation. There is a growing interest in studying the general dynamics of Bitcoin market. For instance, diversification was measured (Brière et al., 2015; Bouri et al., 2017; Urquhart & Zhang, 2019; Chaim & Laurini, 2018; Lahmiri et al., 2018), statistical properties and market efficiency were examined (Bariviera et al., 2017; Carbone et al., 2004; Martinez et al., 2018; McCarthy, 2009; Symitsi & Chalvatzis, 2018), liquidity and microstructure were explored (Koutmos, 2018; Dyhrberg et al., 2018; Donier & Bonart, 2015), speculative bubble and risk were investigated (Osterrieder & Lorenz, 2017; Bouoiyour et al., 2015; Klein et al., 2018), regulation was studied (Dwyer, 2015; Tasca & Liu, 2018; Katsiampa, 2017) whilst optimal trading was scrutinized (Ajaz & Kumar, 2018; Li & Tourin, 2016; Yi et al., 2018).
Bojana Vuković, Kristina Mijić, Dejan Jakšić, Dušan Saković
Cash is one of the key items in the balance sheet, since it is necessary for every transaction. Cash holdings provide the company with flexibility and the ability to meet its own needs, regardless of existing business conditions. It can be significant in terms of the company’s internal financing, thus it is crucial to maintain an optimal level of cash, given that external financing also entails certain costs. An optimal level of cash holdings represents available money to investors and should increase general business efficiency. Achieving an optimal level of cash holdings provides the company with autonomy to explore new opportunities as well as take risks. An insufficient level of cash creates the need for financing from external sources, which is reflected in reduced investments and decreased sale of available assets and securities. However, a large amount of cash enables the company to respond to market trends and take advantage of investment opportunities so as to secure the financial power of the company.