Milan Půček, Michal Plaček, František Ochrana
By way of public budgets is in economically developed countries redistributed approximately one half of the produced GDP. According to the EUROSTAT data (EUROSTAT, 2012), total government expenditures in the EU countries (EU-7) accounted in 2012 for 48.9 % of GDP, of which expenditures on the local governments’ level accounted for 11.5% of GDP. In the Czech Republic, these expenditures stood in 2012 at 43.9% of GDP, while local governments’ spending accounted for 9.8% of GDP. A more detailed comparison of the ratio of total public expenditures to GDP and expenditures of local governments to GDP brings the following table.
Christian Nedu Osakwe, Henry Boateng, Simona Popa, Miloslava Chovancová, Pedro Soto-Acosta
Brands, branding, brand management, brand orientation and their related terms have received substantial attention from marketing scholars and practitioners (Peng, Chen, & Wen, 2014). This could probably be due to their strategic importance to organizations (Urde, Baumgarth, & Merrilees, 2013). Consumers on the other hand have also come to embrace the concept, as it helps them in their purchasing decisions by offering them signals for improved efﬁciency in information processing and for selecting products (Kotler & Pfoertsch, 2007; Shi & Chow, 2015; Zablah, Brown, & Donthu, 2010).
Creativity is a very important aspect of market economy. Some scholars (Howkins, 2007; Florida, 2002) are absolutely enthusiastic about creativity that should give a competitive priority in respect of the competitors. Nevertheless, creativity also raises many problems in management of it from feeling of guilty to threat against identity of organization. In general, creativity is an ambivalent and contradictory phenomenon that covers both positive and negative aspects.
Monica Violeta Achim, Sorin Nicolae Borlea, Lucian Vasile Găban
The economy’s globalization which culminated with the global ﬁnancial crisis that erupted in 2007 has affected the economies around the world demonstrating that the results of research studies on bankruptcy risk prediction are insufﬁcient. Furthermore, the studies conducted so far do not provide direct insight into the capital market to investors for whom the ﬁrst step in a company’s failure is manifested by delisting the company from the stock exchange.
Zbigniew Gołaś, Izabela Kurzawa
The socio-political changes which started in the late 90’s and the Polish accession to the European Union in 2004 fundamentally determined the direction of structural changes of the national economy. These changes resulted in the beginning of the privatization processes, consolidation and concentration, which, together with the accession to the EU and the intensiﬁcation of the globalization processes, increased their dynamics. Moreover, there was a confrontation with foreign markets, mainly those of the EU, resulting in changes in prices relations, consumer preferences and implementation of legal regulations.