Zdeněk Hruška, Lilia Dvořáková
Environmental taxation has been developing for decades and it started to gain its importance especially with the European Union extending and with the European Union environmental goals unification. Some EU countries introduced the environmental taxes even before the key EC Directive 2003/93 and some countries were made to tax system ecologization by this Directive and by EC Directive 2003/74.
Zsuzsanna K. Szabo, PhD. Michal ŠOLTÉS, PhD. Emilia Herman, PhD.
The present tendencies are expanding worldwide due to three main directions: the globalization which implies increased international competitiveness, technological changes (introduction of ICT led to the need for qualified employee, therefore knowledge has become a necessity), organizational behaviour, ICT, knowledge, innovation are considered priorities. Developed countries and the OECD recognized that some common themes are emerging, the need “for policy coherence in dealing with development for leadership from developing countries and for partnerships with shared risk as well as a focus on key sectors for social and economic development. The related theme is innovation.
Prof. RNDr. Jan Černý, DrSc., dr. h. c., Doc. Ing. Anna Černá, CSc.,
The first urban public transport lines were established separately, on the basis of individual local needs, in the first half of the 19th century. They used horse-drawn omnibuses. An interesting coincidence is that the first public omnibus line was put into operation both in Prague and in London in 1829. A few decades later, there was promoted the effort to merge the individual lines into coherent systems under common management. For instance, the London General Omnibus Company (LGOC) was founded in 1855. KarlinOmnibus Company (Karlin is a quarter of Prague) arose in 1870. Routes and frequencies of these systems were created intuitively and were modified based on experience. The same become true when the omnibuses were motorized.