Ahmet Hakan Ozkan, Meral Elci, Melisa Erdilek Karabay, Hakan Kitapci, Cinar Garip
In mature markets such as the markets of the United States, the organizations aim to form the best teams to be more effective in a competitive environment. But turnover is a threat to effective organizations. It is also an extra cost for the institutions. Therefore the managers try to keep turnover under control. But it is a challenging task because there is a lot of variables that influence turnover intention. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and empowerment are chosen as the main antecedents of turnover intention. Meta-analysis studies showed that organizational commitment and job satisfaction are the strongest predictors of turnover intention (Tett & Meyer, 1993; Choi & Kim, 2016; Coomber & Barriball, 2006; Kim & Kao, 2014). Tett and Meyer (1993) reported that job satisfaction and turnover intention had the highest negative correlation among the other factors affecting turnover intention. The metaanalysis study of Pagilagan (2017) accepted organizational commitment and empowerment as the main antecedents of turnover intention.
Pavol Kita, František Križan, Kristína Bilková, Milan Zeman, Tomáš Siviček
A myriad of factors influences every area of human activity. Recognition of these factors enables a responsible approach in environmental organization, modification and subsequent adaptation. This is also true for a consumer which feels a lack of the availability of specific merchandise. If this need is not satisfied, the consumer does one of two things, either he searches for a product which can satisfy the need or tries to suppress the need (Kita, 2016). In this respect, cross-border shopping offers new sources of opportunities to satisfy needs, find more suitable financial conditions or change expectations about a product. This means that these consumers may have a tendency to spend more in search for the highest quality among local or branded products. In the context of travelling abroad, Choi et al. (2016) claim that shopping has become a determining factor affecting destination choice. Travelling to shop abroad represents a specific aspect of shopping (Bygvrå, 2019; Spierings & van der Velde, 2008; Timothy & Butler, 1995; Powęska, 2008) when other regions attract new consumers (Balogh & Pete, 2018; Doong, Wang, & Law, 2012).
In several economies, tourism is the key field representing an engine of economic growth. This field is employing directly or indirectly a big part of the economically active population. Above that, tourism belongs to the services, which bring an added value itself. A recent global financial crisis, which negatively reflected a real economy development ten years ago, unfortunately, influenced tourism, too. Even if the role of a central bank is very distant from tourism, a consequent unconventional monetary policy within the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone undoubtedly influenced it as well (Heryán, 2017). Rather than macroeconomy and turbulent development in financial markets, which can relate to tourism in very different ways, it is more contributive to deal with a microeconomic aspect of company internal processes of hotels and travel agencies (Heryán, 2018).
Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Piotr Zaborek
Relationships in the supply chain have been a longstanding theme of research (e.g. Ailawadi et al., 2010; Corsten & Kumar, 2005; Vlachos et al., 2008). Manufacturer-retailer relationships have changed in recent decades due to the growing power of retailers (Amato & Amato, 2009) reinforced by concentration processes in retailing (Burt & Sparks, 2003), the emergence of mega-retailers and their internationalization, and the rise of the Internet. The shift in bargaining power toward retailers is manifested by the growing market shares of private brands (Chimhundu, 2011). On the heels of these trends, changes have come in business models of both retailers and producers (e.g. Ritala et al., 2014; Witek-Hajduk, 2017). The role of retailers has evolved “from mere service providers to market makers” (Hamilton & Petrovic, 2011). The growing power of retailers has prompted many manufacturers of consumer goods to establish their own or controlled retail channels and/or to produce goods under retailers’ private labels often competing with their own brands. Consequently, various forms of cooperation and competition have developed giving rise to the phenomenon of coopetition (Kim et al., 2013).
Manuela Saco, Aida Galiano, Vicente Rodríguez
The conversion rate in sales is a fundamental parameter to assess the performance of the Marketing and sales departments. Fisher (2013) claims that when customers visit a store, retailers try to convert traffic by making sure there is the right product, in the right place, at the right time, and with the right price. At that moment, the conversion rate is a crucial value to measure the effectiveness of the Marketing policies and commercial teams in relation to consumer behaviour. The conversion rate (CR) measures the ratio between the total number of visitors entering an establishment and those who make a purchase (on a daily, monthly, quarterly and annual basis). The conversion rate can also be useful to analyse the evolution of the commercial efficiency in a business or to compare similar establishments in which the conversion rates are significantly different. Somehow, the efficiency depends on the adequate commercial performance of the sales team, trying to attract the largest number of potential buyers visiting the establishment (Rodríguez, Olarte-Pascual, & Saco, 2017). Therefore, the conversion rate grows with an excellent customer service and better execution of the store processes.