Saddam Hossain, Beáta Gavurová, Xianghui Yuan, Morshadul Hasan, Judit Oláh
According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO, 2020), the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in late December has spread to 216 countries, territories or regions, causing more than 21.5 (214,435,732) million confirmed casualties and 4,471,650 deaths worldwide on August 26, 2021. Due to the large and continuous spread of the novel coronavirus worldwide, on March 11, 2020, the WHO officially declared it a pandemic (Mahmud et al., 2021). In most economies, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused uncertainty and a temporary closure with positive cases coronavirus. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to assess the significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intraday stock returns. Many investors close their holdings, including the stock market’s assets, thereby influencing the stock market. According to Jegadeesh and Titman (1993), the stock purchase method is appropriate when stock sales have performer poorly during the holding period of past 3-months to the 12-months. Besides, these forms of momentum gain are inappropriate to justify risk-based momentum. In exchange for 1 to 12 months (Moskowitz et al., 2012), the persistence in partially changed in a longer horizon.
Gentjan Çera, Khurram Ajaz Khan, Zuzana Rowland, Humberto Nuno Rito Ribeiro
Not everyone has enough skills and abilities to tackle complex financial markets and make prudent financial decisions in uncommon situations. People worldwide have been using paid and unpaid sources for advice from someone they trust to overcome them. Numerous studies have witnessed fruitful results from financial advisors in financial planning, such as retirement planning and wealth creation (Irving, 2012; Stolper & Walter, 2017). The current issues, such as complexities of the financial market and difficulties arising out of the economic crisis, are becoming worrisome (Crotty, 2009; Taylor, 2011; Xiao & O’Neill, 2016). The volatile economic environment and the problems of retirement financial security (Wang & Shi, 2014) add to its severity. The most important of all is to know how to make a prudent economic decision in financial aspects (Lusardi & Mitchell, 2014). The suffering resulting from the likelihood of losing money due to erroneous financial conclusions leads to financial anxiety (Cwynar et al., 2020).
M. M. Sulphey, Awad Ali Alanzi, Martin Klepek
In the current world, there is an informational imbalance in employer-employee relationships (Cabrelli, 2019). While employers usually enjoy higher levels of resources, expertise, and access to information about labour conditions, employees are disadvantaged than employers as they have to face multiple issues and barriers. Employees are in a difficult situation concerning contract negotiation and writing. Due to better resources, employers are in a better place regarding eliciting unilaterally favourable contractual terms. As employers have a form of monopoly, they tend to be involved in intimidating and unprincipled behaviours like treating employees inconsistently, which could be detrimental (Deakin, 2012). There is also a gap in the process of monitoring and enforcement of contractual obligations (Wachter, 2012). This situation tends to affect employees far more than an employer, e. g. any cost overrun for the employer is often passed down indirectly to employees in reduced compensation and deferred benefits.
There can be found many articles in which price discrimination was swiftly considered as a negative phenomenon, mainly behavioural economy studies. Such studies described it as pricing leading to consumer-detrimental effects and increasing companies’ profits. However, this rule is not as universal as it may seem. The case is more complicated because exceptions do exist, and they are far from rare – software, cell carrier services, real-time stock quotes, electronic newspapers subscription, electric energy supply, payment accounts, books, copyrighted content streaming, file storage, and more. These information and network goods were often treated as any mass-produced physical goods, which is not an adequate approach. The article’s ambition is to contribute to a change. I hope that after reading the article, you would agree that price discrimination in the case of information and network goods should be viewed by different optics.
Kateřina Matušínská, Michal Stoklasa
Integrated marketing communication is an arrangement by which organizations organize their online and offline marketing communication tools to provide a clear, consistent, trusted, and competitive message about an organization and its offer (Fahy & Jobber, 2019). Organizations aim at attracting the target customers and communicating the value of the product (brand) to them clearly and convincingly (Kotler & Armstrong, 2018). Modern communication technologies and approaches nowadays allow customers a much higher level of information availability, so potential and loyal customers regularly check the quality of all organizations and choose the best offers for themselves according to the recommendations of their acquaintances, friends, or discussion forums (Petrů et al., 2020). Despite the large increase in the use of personal communication due to Internet penetration, advertising in mixture with other marketing communication tools has a substantial impact on consumer interest, brand building, and sales. Advertising is considered a positive as well as a negative element in society (Copley, 2004).