Izabela Kudelska, Rafał Niedbał
In their response to the necessity to meet the demands of customers, the enterprises are forced to reduce the time of order delivery. Today, almost every enterprise has its own warehouse facilities or outsources warehouse processes. Therefore, the contemporary warehouses play a significant role in production and service networks. The maintenance of high efficiency of warehouse processes determines the competitive functioning of enterprises. Continuous progress in this area sets the pace for these changes. Nevertheless, despite of the desire to reduce costs while increasing the efficiency of the warehouse process, you cannot forget about employees. In addition to efficiency and the level of generated costs, a warehouse employee is one of the factors that not only affects the shape of the logistics system in an enterprise, but also affects all links in the supply chain. This study is intended to research the impact of technological and organizational innovation implemented in the warehousing process on the efficiency of picking processes and staff workload on picking stations. The research was performed with warehouse simulation models developed in FlexSlim 3D Simulation Software. The simulated warehouses represent the warehouses in B2C (Business to Customer) logistics. They are about the layout of bag-type warehouse and the size and shape of the assortment varies. The size of storage zone is the same for all three warehouses. In these warehouses the assortment is arranged randomly. For each model, several simulations have been performed. The conducted research has shown that the results of technological and organizational innovation implemented in the warehousing process should be in general evaluated positively. Both the warehouse productivity and the picking process efficiency increased. The staff workload decreased, which is reflected in greater work comfort for a man and which supports implementation of control activities. However, it should be noted that implementation of the technological and organizational innovation in the warehousing processes adopted in various enterprises changes the labor market, thus it is possible that some problems with maintaining current employment levels will occur.
Rita Remeikienė, Jan Žufan, Ligita Gasparėnienė, Romualdas Ginevičius
The main aim of this article is to research the relationship between youth unemployment and self-employment in the EU and categorise particular EU countries as the countries with youth self-employment driven by push factors or pull factors. It has been revealed that statistically significant relationships between unemployment and self-employment among young people from the 28 EU countries, in only 7 countries have been identified. Of these, Greece, Italy and Cyprus, the unemployment rate among young people would decrease if national governments were to reduce unemployment through self-employment support measures. In other countries such as Germany, Sweden, the Czech Republic and Malta, it would be inappropriate to reduce unemployment through support for self-employment. In other EU countries, fighting youth unemployment requires addressing other labor market issues, such as the reluctance of businesses to employ unqualified or low-skilled young people, reducing the chances of reducing the tax burden when hiring young people, making flexible use of education opportunities with employment. The fact was confirmed that is inappropriate for all countries (in this case EU countries) to apply universal strategies to combat unemployment, because by means of theories and pilot studies on the establishment of statistically significant relationships, it is possible to avoid mistakes by directing support to the needs of target groups.
Wojciech Grabowski, Karol Korczak
Due to the low level of quality of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) data set, studies devoted to matching the LFS data with data from alternative sources are frequent. In this paper, we propose a novel method of complementing data gaps on wages in the Labour Force Survey data set. The method is based on estimataing the parameters of the multilevel model explaining wages on the basis of the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) data set. In such a way, we identify the impact of individual characteristics and enterprise-level features on wages. We also find evidence of random differences between the wages of workers from different professional groups. The relative importance of consecutive groups of variables is evaluated on the basis of the estimates of the parameters of the full model and reduced models. The results of the estimation of the parameters are in line with expectations. The estimates of parameters and predictions of random effects are used in order to calculate the theoretical wages of individuals who do not report wages in the Labour Force Survey. When the predicted wages are compared with the observed ones, some discrepancies are observed. Rationales for these discrepancies are provided. Therefore, the use of a correction factor is proposed. Correction factors are provided for different features of workers and different features of enterprises. The use of the microeconometric multilevel model, as well as the correction factor, leads to reasonable wage estimates of workers not reporting them in the Labour Force Survey. The proposed method may be used in order to complement data gaps on wages for other EU countries.
Katarzyna Krot, Dagmara Lewicka
In the contemporary economic reality, which is based on relations, the role of trust both in the intra- and inter-organisational context is growing in importance. Impersonal trust is characterized by considerable durability and forms a solid framework for developing interpersonal trust. In consequence, many researchers’ attention is drawn towards practices aimed at the development of such trust. The goal of the paper is to analyse potential relations between the degree of impersonal trust and innovative culture and, in particular, to operationalise the variables, i.e. determine the dimensions of impersonal trust and innovative culture, estimate the impact of the individual dimensions of the former onto those of the latter. The survey was conducted in Poland among 630 employees of large and mediumsized enterprises. Verification of the theoretical model was performed based on structural equation modeling. The research led to the identification of dependencies between the particular dimensions of impersonal trust and innovative culture, confirming the importance of impersonal trust in the process of shaping organisational culture. Impersonal trust was recognized as a separate construct which determines the nature of innovative culture. Feeling of security has special significance at workplace because guarantees stability, durability and openness in relations, enhances creativity of staff and gives them freedom to try non-conventional solutions to problems. Organisational assurance, i.e. a conviction about the clarity of rules and principles, open communication and making staff feel they are included in organisational processes, has a weaker impact on the dimensions of innovative culture when compared to feeling of security.
The performance of the economy should generally reflect the performance of stock markets. Production increases, prices rise, and companies’ profits increase if the economy grows. And the shares should naturally make the profits (which means among other things, higher dividends) even more attractive. But is that really true? The aim of the article is to find out the relationship between the development of stock markets and the economic growth in Visegrad Group countries (V4). The subject of the survey is both the long-term relationship and the short-term relationship in the course of economic cycles. The article uses the tools of time series econometrics, especially VECMs, including corresponding diagnostics, Granger causality and block erogeneity. The relationships between the variables examined vary from country to country. The long-term relationship between the development of stock markets and the economic growth was confirmed in Slovakia and Hungary. It was confirmed that the GDP growth rate influenced the growth rate of stock indices in all V4 countries. The opposite relationship (the stock index growth rate influences the GDP growth rate) was not confirmed only in the Czech Republic. Quarterly data for the period from 2005/Q1 to 2018/Q4 was used for the analysis. This period was selected because all of the V4 countries have been members of the European Union since 2004. The EViews software version 9 was used for the calculations. Variables used in this research are: the GDP, the stock Exchange index of the country and stock trading volume. The PX, SAX, BUX and WIG20 stock indices are considered to be the crucial representatives of individual stock markets in this work.