Jelena Stankevičienė, Marta Nikanorova, Gentjan Çera
Sustainability and sustainable economic development nowadays have become essential goals the world is challenged to achieve and a constant concern for policymakers (Garud & Gehman, 2012; Markard, Raven, & Truffer, 2012; Millar, McLaughlin, & Börger, 2019). Nowadays, the world is facing with the problém related to the inefficiently used resources and increased generated waste (D’Amato et al., 2017). The current economic model uses “takemake-waste” industrial model known as linear economy (make, use, dispose) (Kalmykova, Sadagopan, & Rosado, 2018). This paradigm does not take into account the fact that there is a limited amount of resources. Therefore, the world could face serious problems such as resource shortage due to the increasing economic volumes and amount of resources used to produce and offer goods and services.
Pavol Kita, František Križan, Kristína Bilková, Milan Zeman, Tomáš Siviček
A myriad of factors influences every area of human activity. Recognition of these factors enables a responsible approach in environmental organization, modification and subsequent adaptation. This is also true for a consumer which feels a lack of the availability of specific merchandise. If this need is not satisfied, the consumer does one of two things, either he searches for a product which can satisfy the need or tries to suppress the need (Kita, 2016). In this respect, cross-border shopping offers new sources of opportunities to satisfy needs, find more suitable financial conditions or change expectations about a product. This means that these consumers may have a tendency to spend more in search for the highest quality among local or branded products. In the context of travelling abroad, Choi et al. (2016) claim that shopping has become a determining factor affecting destination choice. Travelling to shop abroad represents a specific aspect of shopping (Bygvrå, 2019; Spierings & van der Velde, 2008; Timothy & Butler, 1995; Powęska, 2008) when other regions attract new consumers (Balogh & Pete, 2018; Doong, Wang, & Law, 2012).
The tourist services market is a very variable and difficult to predict market (Chen & Kang, 2015) that reacts quickly to factors and turmoil occurring in the international, national and local environment. Impact of these factors is evident both on the supply and on the demand side (Zdon-Korzeniowska & Rachwał, 2011). Studies by Millana and Esteban (2004), Silva and Gonçalves (2016) and Chih-Wen (2016) showed that customers are not loyal to their travel agencies. Changing the organizer of tourist services is not a problem for tourists, nor does it raise any resistance such as may occur, for example, when changing the telephone operator, bank or energy supplier. Thus, it is more difficult for travel agencies to acquire regular customers than for other service companies. In addition, they must adapt the offer more precisely to the needs of customers to convince them to purchase the services offered (Rudawska, 2010), therefore it is so important to know the main goals of tourist trips, customers’ needs and determinants, that guide the selection of the organizer of a tourism. In order to gain their trust, they must choose appropriate communication channels to establish a dialogue with the customer, promote their own brand and the tourist products they sell.
Ji Chen, Qiang Fang, Si Liu, Tomas Balezentis, Chonghui Zhang
Trade promotes economic (Drelich-Skulska & Domiter, 2018; Skulski, 2018; Bobowski, 2018), social (Radukic et al., 2019) and environmental (Munir & Ameer, 2018; Tao et al., 2017) interactions. The conceptual category of service trade has two different interpretations, broad and narrow. In a narrow sense, trade in services refers to activities in which a country meets the specific needs of other countries in a way that provides direct services and is paid in the course of the transaction. In the broad service trade, it includes both tangible activities and various intangible activities that complete the transaction without direct contact between the service provider and the user. Unless otherwise stated, trade in services usually refers to concepts in a broad perspective.
Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Piotr Zaborek
Relationships in the supply chain have been a longstanding theme of research (e.g. Ailawadi et al., 2010; Corsten & Kumar, 2005; Vlachos et al., 2008). Manufacturer-retailer relationships have changed in recent decades due to the growing power of retailers (Amato & Amato, 2009) reinforced by concentration processes in retailing (Burt & Sparks, 2003), the emergence of mega-retailers and their internationalization, and the rise of the Internet. The shift in bargaining power toward retailers is manifested by the growing market shares of private brands (Chimhundu, 2011). On the heels of these trends, changes have come in business models of both retailers and producers (e.g. Ritala et al., 2014; Witek-Hajduk, 2017). The role of retailers has evolved “from mere service providers to market makers” (Hamilton & Petrovic, 2011). The growing power of retailers has prompted many manufacturers of consumer goods to establish their own or controlled retail channels and/or to produce goods under retailers’ private labels often competing with their own brands. Consequently, various forms of cooperation and competition have developed giving rise to the phenomenon of coopetition (Kim et al., 2013).