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Editorial office of the journal E&M Economics and Management warns that there have recently emerged false offers promising mediation of publishing in our journal for a certain fee. Editorial office declares that we do not keep such cooperation. Every single review process is standartized and transparent. If you are interested in publishing with E&M, contact our editorial office directly. The journal does not have any intermediaries abroad.

Aims & Scope

The journal E&M Economics and Management (E&M) publishes high quality original research articles and scientific studies based on theoretical and empirical analyses. E&M encourages new intriguing ideas and new perspectives on existing state of knowledge.
Among the key topics covered are Economics, Business Administration, Finance, Management, Information Management, and Marketing & Trade. More information here.
The journal E&M Economics and Management (E&M) publishes high quality original research articles and scientific studies based on theoretical and empirical analyses. E&M encourages new intriguing ideas and new perspectives on existing state of knowledge.
Among the key topics covered are Economics, Business Administration, Finance, Management, Information Management, and Marketing & Trade. More information here.

Choice of articles of current issue

INNOVATIVE ESTEEM: ANTECEDENTS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH JOB PERFORMANCE

Ch. Mahmood Anwar

Nowadays when businesses are facing intense rivalries, it is worthwhile for business organizations to recruit and retain workforce by adopting successful strategies to gain or sustain competitive advantage. Literature indicates that many factors (e.g., economic, financial, legal, structural, technical, procedural, and social) play an important role in determining organizational success (Pourhanifeh & Mazdeh, 2016). Moreover, literature also highlights the importance of workforce which is considered as an essential element for organizations to outperform. Riaz et al. (2018) mentioned that currently organizations are putting more efforts to explore employees’ innovative behaviour in order to obtain and sustain edge over competitors. Farid et al. (2017) highlighted that majority of the studies investigating innovative behaviour of employees were conducted at organizational level. They realized the need to conduct studies exploring innovativeness of employees at individual level.
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COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD’S SUGAR MARKET: THE EXISTENCE OF THE LONG-TERM EQUILIBRIUM

Elena Kuzmenko, Luboš Smutka, Wadim Strielkowski, Justas Štreimikis, Dalia Štreimikienė

In general, sugar markets are among the fastest developing markets in the world (Huang & Xiong, 2020). The significant global market liberalization resulted in the fast growth of supply and stocks (Zuckerindustrie, 2018). At the same time, continuous changes in consumption patterns are affecting the global demand for sugar and sugar products (Muhammad et al., 2019). On the other hand, global sugar market is still influenced by the existing protectionists measures (see Solomon, 2014). It is of note that protectionist policies are applied in sugar markets by both developed and developing countries (Haley, 2016). Eventually, global sugar market appears to be suffering because of high-applied tariffs, limited tariff quotas and production subsidies (da Costa et al., 2015). As a result, this is reflected in price transmission and significant sugar price differences existing among individual regions in the world. Another specific feature of global sugar market is its notable price fluctuation which is a result of speculative trade activities.
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MACROECONOMIC TIME SERIES AFFECTING THE MINIMUM AND AVERAGE WAGES OF V4 COUNTRIES

Lucie Meixnerová, Michal Krajňák

The minimum wage institute was established at the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Its purpose was to ensure the protection of the workforce. The minimum wage ensures that the labour market wage cannot fall below the determined level, which takes the form in accordance with the economic and political conditions of the country concerned (Dube et al., 2010). The determined level of the minimum wage results either from the tripartite act, which is made up of representatives of government, employers and trade unions or is enacted in relation to a percentage of the average wage level. Lopresti and Mumford (2016) mention that setting a minimum wage is a very complex problem, as its value is related to the price of labour that affects employers’ competitiveness. The minimum wage affects not only the part of the employer but also the employee, as employees want to receive fair remuneration for their work that will ensure them the required standard of living.
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DOES WORKING WOMEN’S CAUSES INNOVATION: AN UNTOUCHED REALITY?

Wen Jun, Ihsan Jamil, Bushra Mughal, Junaid Waheed, Hadi Hussain

Human asset training and development increases the productivity and skills of workers (Saif et al., 2019). Globally, governments spend billions of dollars to promote the workforce, to enhance their country’s economy and innovation. Working women are the pillars of society and play a vital role in its development. The female workforce is the key to innovation, growth, and prosperity in modern societies. Globally, economists focus on the practical and theoretical side of how working women perform an active role within the workforce and how they positively contribute to growth and Innovation (Luci, 2009). Women first started participating in the workforce during the late 19th and early 20th century. Worldwide, owing to higher per capita economic growth, the demand for female participation in the labour force has been increasing and motivating the working women to participate in development and innovation activities.
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KEYSTROKE DYNAMICS AUTHENTICATION USING A SMALL NUMBER OF SAMPLES

Jan Čapek, Miloslav Hub

The ubiquitous Internet connectivity has led to the introduction of an ever-increasing list of diverse online services ranging from financial transactions to online gaming and the other e-commerce purposes. For example, with cloud computing on the rise, geographically distant employees of organizations are able to access and share sensitive organizational resources online. The mentioned trend has increased the amount of user authentication processes. The aim of authentication is to decide whether a subject in question is in fact the subject that he claims to be. As an example can be mentioned traditional authentication, when end users authenticate themselves on computers by using the pair of username and password. In the past, many sophisticated authentication methods were developed. Generally, they can by divided to the three basic types of authentication depending on what kind of identification feature is used: authentication by knowledge, authentication by ownership of something, and authentication by biometrics. Each of these ways has its advantages and disadvantages.
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